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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00475
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5715
  • HMDBP03770
Name Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
Synonyms
  1. HGPRT
  2. HGPRTase
Gene Name HPRT1
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific Function Converts guanine to guanosine monophosphate, and hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate. Transfers the 5-phosphoribosyl group from 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate onto the purine. Plays a central role in the generation of purine nucleotides through the purine salvage pathway.
Pathways
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)
  • Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
  • Adenylosuccinate Lyase Deficiency
  • AICA-Ribosiduria
  • Azathioprine Action Pathway
  • Drug metabolism - other enzymes
  • Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller Syndrome
  • IMP biosynthesis via salvage pathway
  • Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)
  • Mercaptopurine Action Pathway
  • Mercaptopurine Metabolism Pathway
  • Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome
  • Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency
  • Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency
  • Purine Metabolism
  • Purine metabolism
  • Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Deficiency
  • Thioguanine Action Pathway
  • Thioguanine Metabolism Pathway
  • Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)
  • Xanthinuria type I
  • Xanthinuria type II
Reactions
Inosinic acid + Pyrophosphate → Hypoxanthine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate details
Guanosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate → Guanine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate details
Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate → Adenine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate details
Xanthylic acid + Pyrophosphate → Xanthine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate details
Mercaptopurine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate → 6-Thioinosine-5'-monophosphate + Pyrophosphate details
6-Methylmercaptopurine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate → 6-Methylthiopurine 5'-monophosphate ribonucleotide + Pyrophosphate details
Thioguanine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate → 6-Thioguanosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate details
GO Classification
Biological Process
spermatogenesis
purine ribonucleoside salvage
response to amphetamine
IMP salvage
dopamine metabolic process
dendrite morphogenesis
behavior
positive regulation of dopamine metabolic process
hypoxanthine salvage
protein homotetramerization
adenine salvage
grooming behavior
cytolysis
central nervous system neuron development
cerebral cortex neuron differentiation
GMP catabolic process
GMP salvage
guanine salvage
lymphocyte proliferation
striatum development
Cellular Component
cytosol
Component
cell part
intracellular part
cytoplasm
Function
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Molecular Function
magnesium ion binding
guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
nucleotide binding
Process
metabolic process
nitrogen compound metabolic process
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
nucleobase, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolic process
nucleobase, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolic process
nucleoside metabolic process
biosynthetic process
cellular biosynthetic process
heterocycle biosynthetic process
purine salvage
purine ribonucleoside salvage
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasm
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location X
Locus Xq26.1
SNPs HPRT1
Gene Sequence
>657 bp
ATGGCGACCCGCAGCCCTGGCGTCGTGATTAGTGATGATGAACCAGGTTATGACCTTGAT
TTATTTTGCATACCTAATCATTATGCTGAGGATTTGGAAAGGGTGTTTATTCCTCATGGA
CTAATTATGGACAGGACTGAACGTCTTGCTCGAGATGTGATGAAGGAGATGGGAGGCCAT
CACATTGTAGCCCTCTGTGTGCTCAAGGGGGGCTATAAATTCTTTGCTGACCTGCTGGAT
TACATCAAAGCACTGAATAGAAATAGTGATAGATCCATTCCTATGACTGTAGATTTTATC
AGACTGAAGAGCTATTGTAATGACCAGTCAACAGGGGACATAAAAGTAATTGGTGGAGAT
GATCTCTCAACTTTAACTGGAAAGAATGTCTTGATTGTGGAAGATATAATTGACACTGGC
AAAACAATGCAGACTTTGCTTTCCTTGGTCAGGCAGTATAATCCAAAGATGGTCAAGGTC
GCAAGCTTGCTGGTGAAAAGGACCCCACGAAGTGTTGGATATAAGCCAGACTTTGTTGGA
TTTGAAATTCCAGACAAGTTTGTTGTAGGATATGCCCTTGACTATAATGAATACTTCAGG
GATTTGAATCATGTTTGTGTCATTAGTGAAACTGGAAAAGCAAAATACAAAGCCTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 218
Molecular Weight 24579.155
Theoretical pI 6.689
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
MATRSPGVVISDDEPGYDLDLFCIPNHYAEDLERVFIPHGLIMDRTERLARDVMKEMGGH
HIVALCVLKGGYKFFADLLDYIKALNRNSDRSIPMTVDFIRLKSYCNDQSTGDIKVIGGD
DLSTLTGKNVLIVEDIIDTGKTMQTLLSLVRQYNPKMVKVASLLVKRTPRSVGYKPDFVG
FEIPDKFVVGYALDYNEYFRDLNHVCVISETGKAKYKA
GenBank ID Protein 306885
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P00492
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name HPRT_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID M31642
GeneCard ID HPRT1
GenAtlas ID HPRT1
HGNC ID HGNC:5157
References
General References
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  4. Jolly DJ, Okayama H, Berg P, Esty AC, Filpula D, Bohlen P, Johnson GG, Shively JE, Hunkapillar T, Friedmann T: Isolation and characterization of a full-length expressible cDNA for human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Jan;80(2):477-81. [PubMed:6300847 ]
  5. Edwards A, Voss H, Rice P, Civitello A, Stegemann J, Schwager C, Zimmermann J, Erfle H, Caskey CT, Ansorge W: Automated DNA sequencing of the human HPRT locus. Genomics. 1990 Apr;6(4):593-608. [PubMed:2341149 ]
  6. Wilson JM, Tarr GE, Mahoney WC, Kelley WN: Human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. Complete amino acid sequence of the erythrocyte enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1982 Sep 25;257(18):10978-85. [PubMed:7107641 ]
  7. Patel PI, Framson PE, Caskey CT, Chinault AC: Fine structure of the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1986 Feb;6(2):393-403. [PubMed:3023844 ]
  8. Eads JC, Scapin G, Xu Y, Grubmeyer C, Sacchettini JC: The crystal structure of human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase with bound GMP. Cell. 1994 Jul 29;78(2):325-34. [PubMed:8044844 ]
  9. Shi W, Li CM, Tyler PC, Furneaux RH, Grubmeyer C, Schramm VL, Almo SC: The 2.0 A structure of human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase in complex with a transition-state analog inhibitor. Nat Struct Biol. 1999 Jun;6(6):588-93. [PubMed:10360366 ]
  10. Balendiran GK, Molina JA, Xu Y, Torres-Martinez J, Stevens R, Focia PJ, Eakin AE, Sacchettini JC, Craig SP 3rd: Ternary complex structure of human HGPRTase, PRPP, Mg2+, and the inhibitor HPP reveals the involvement of the flexible loop in substrate binding. Protein Sci. 1999 May;8(5):1023-31. [PubMed:10338013 ]
  11. Sculley DG, Dawson PA, Emmerson BT, Gordon RB: A review of the molecular basis of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency. Hum Genet. 1992 Nov;90(3):195-207. [PubMed:1487231 ]
  12. Wilson JM, Kobayashi R, Fox IH, Kelley WN: Human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1983 May 25;258(10):6458-60. [PubMed:6853490 ]
  13. Wilson JM, Kelley WN: Molecular basis of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency in a patient with the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. J Clin Invest. 1983 May;71(5):1331-5. [PubMed:6853716 ]
  14. Wilson JM, Tarr GE, Kelley WN: Human hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyltransferase: an amino acid substitution in a mutant form of the enzyme isolated from a patient with gout. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Feb;80(3):870-3. [PubMed:6572373 ]
  15. Wilson JM, Kelley WN: Human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. Structural alteration in a dysfunctional enzyme variant (HPRTMunich) isolated from a patient with gout. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jan 10;259(1):27-30. [PubMed:6706936 ]
  16. Cariello NF, Scott JK, Kat AG, Thilly WG, Keohavong P: Resolution of a missense mutant in human genomic DNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and direct sequencing using in vitro DNA amplification: HPRT Munich. Am J Hum Genet. 1988 May;42(5):726-34. [PubMed:3358423 ]
  17. Davidson BL, Pashmforoush M, Kelley WN, Palella TD: Genetic basis of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency in a patient with the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (HPRTFlint). Gene. 1988 Mar 31;63(2):331-6. [PubMed:3384338 ]
  18. Davidson BL, Palella TD, Kelley WN: Human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase: a single nucleotide substitution in cDNA clones isolated from a patient with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (HPRTMidland). Gene. 1988 Aug 15;68(1):85-91. [PubMed:3265398 ]
  19. Fujimori S, Hidaka Y, Davidson BL, Palella TD, Kelley WN: Identification of a single nucleotide change in a mutant gene for hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT Ann Arbor). Hum Genet. 1988 May;79(1):39-43. [PubMed:2896620 ]
  20. Davidson BL, Chin SJ, Wilson JM, Kelley WN, Palella TD: Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. Genetic evidence for identical mutations in two partially deficient subjects. J Clin Invest. 1988 Dec;82(6):2164-7. [PubMed:3198771 ]
  21. Keough DT, Gordon RB, de Jersey J, Emmerson BT: Biochemical basis of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency in nine families. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1988;11(3):229-38. [PubMed:3148064 ]
  22. Igarashi T, Minami M, Nishida Y: Molecular analysis of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase mutations in five unrelated Japanese patients. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1989 Jun;31(3):303-13. [PubMed:2572141 ]
  23. Davidson BL, Pashmforoush M, Kelley WN, Palella TD: Human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. The molecular defect in a patient with gout (HPRTAshville). J Biol Chem. 1989 Jan 5;264(1):520-5. [PubMed:2909537 ]
  24. Fujimori S, Davidson BL, Kelley WN, Palella TD: Identification of a single nucleotide change in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (HPRTYale) responsible for Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. J Clin Invest. 1989 Jan;83(1):11-3. [PubMed:2910902 ]
  25. Davidson BL, Tarle SA, Palella TD, Kelley WN: Molecular basis of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency in ten subjects determined by direct sequencing of amplified transcripts. J Clin Invest. 1989 Jul;84(1):342-6. [PubMed:2738157 ]
  26. Gibbs RA, Nguyen PN, McBride LJ, Koepf SM, Caskey CT: Identification of mutations leading to the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome by automated direct DNA sequencing of in vitro amplified cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Mar;86(6):1919-23. [PubMed:2928313 ]
  27. Gibbs RA, Nguyen PN, Edwards A, Civitello AB, Caskey CT: Multiplex DNA deletion detection and exon sequencing of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in Lesch-Nyhan families. Genomics. 1990 Jun;7(2):235-44. [PubMed:2347587 ]
  28. Skopek TR, Recio L, Simpson D, Dallaire L, Melancon SB, Ogier H, O'Neill JP, Falta MT, Nicklas JA, Albertini RJ: Molecular analyses of a Lesch-Nyhan syndrome mutation (hprtMontreal) by use of T-lymphocyte cultures. Hum Genet. 1990 Jun;85(1):111-6. [PubMed:2358296 ]
  29. Gordon RB, Sculley DG, Dawson PA, Beacham IR, Emmerson BT: Identification of a single nucleotide substitution in the coding sequence of in vitro amplified cDNA from a patient with partial HPRT deficiency (HPRTBRISBANE). J Inherit Metab Dis. 1990;13(5):692-700. [PubMed:2246854 ]
  30. Davidson BL, Tarle SA, Van Antwerp M, Gibbs DA, Watts RW, Kelley WN, Palella TD: Identification of 17 independent mutations responsible for human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 May;48(5):951-8. [PubMed:2018042 ]
  31. Tarle SA, Davidson BL, Wu VC, Zidar FJ, Seegmiller JE, Kelley WN, Palella TD: Determination of the mutations responsible for the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome in 17 subjects. Genomics. 1991 Jun;10(2):499-501. [PubMed:2071157 ]
  32. Sculley DG, Dawson PA, Beacham IR, Emmerson BT, Gordon RB: Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency: analysis of HPRT mutations by direct sequencing and allele-specific amplification. Hum Genet. 1991 Oct;87(6):688-92. [PubMed:1937471 ]
  33. Yamada Y, Goto H, Ogasawara N: Identification of two independent Japanese mutant HPRT genes using the PCR technique. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;309B:121-4. [PubMed:1840476 ]
  34. Lightfoot T, Joshi R, Nuki G, Snyder FF: The point mutation of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRTEdinburgh) and detection by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Hum Genet. 1992 Mar;88(6):695-6. [PubMed:1551676 ]
  35. Sege-Peterson K, Chambers J, Page T, Jones OW, Nyhan WL: Characterization of mutations in phenotypic variants of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. Hum Mol Genet. 1992 Sep;1(6):427-32. [PubMed:1301916 ]
  36. Burgemeister R, Rotzer E, Gutensohn W, Gehrke M, Schiel W: Identification of a new missense mutation in exon 2 of the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (HPRTIsar): a further example of clinical heterogeneity in HPRT deficiencies. Hum Mutat. 1995;5(4):341-4. [PubMed:7627191 ]
  37. Fujimori S, Sakuma R, Yamaoka N, Hakoda M, Yamanaka H, Kamatani N: An asymptomatic germline missense base substitution in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene that reduces the amount of enzyme in humans. Hum Genet. 1997 Jan;99(1):8-10. [PubMed:9003484 ]
  38. Liu G, Aral B, Zabot MT, Kamoun P, Ceballos-Picot I: The molecular basis of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency in French families; report of two novel mutations. Hum Mutat. 1998;Suppl 1:S88-90. [PubMed:9452051 ]