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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00682
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5955
Name Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase K
Synonyms
  1. Epidermal TGase
  2. TG(K)
  3. TGK
  4. TGase K
  5. TGase-1
  6. Transglutaminase K
  7. Transglutaminase-1
Gene Name TGM1
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific Function Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. Responsible for cross-linking epidermal proteins during formation of the stratum corneum.
Pathways Not Available
Reactions
Protein glutamine + alkylamine → protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammonia details
GO Classification
Biological Process
organ morphogenesis
keratinocyte differentiation
cellular protein modification process
peptide cross-linking
cell envelope organization
keratinization
Cellular Component
cell-cell adherens junction
cornified envelope
intrinsic to membrane
Function
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
transferase activity, transferring amino-acyl groups
protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Molecular Function
metal ion binding
protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Process
metabolic process
macromolecule metabolic process
post-translational protein modification
peptide cross-linking
macromolecule modification
protein modification process
Cellular Location
  1. Lipid-anchor
  2. Membrane
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 14
Locus 14q11.2
SNPs TGM1
Gene Sequence
>2454 bp
ATGATGGATGGGCCACGTTCCGATGTGGGCCGTTGGGGTGGCAACCCCTTGCAGCCCCCT
ACCACGCCATCTCCAGAGCCAGAGCCAGAGCCAGACGGACGCTCTCGCAGAGGAGGAGGC
CGTTCCTTCTGGGCTCGCTGCTGTGGCTGCTGTTCATGCCGAAATGCGGCAGATGACGAC
TGGGGACCTGAACCCTCTGACTCCAGGGGTCGAGGGTCCAGCTCTGGCACTCGAAGACCT
GGCTCCCGGGGCTCAGACTCCCGCCGGCCTGTATCCCGGGGCAGCGGTGTCAATGCAGCT
GGAGATGGCACCATCCGAGAGGGCATGCTAGTAGTGAACGGTGTGGACTTGCTGAGCTCG
CGCTCGGACCAGAACCGCCGAGAGCACCACACAGACGAGTATGAGTACGACGAGCTGATA
GTGCGCCGCGGGCAGCCTTTCCATATGCTCCTCCTCCTGTCCCGGACCTATGAATCCTCT
GATCGCATCACCCTTGAGTTACTCATCGGAAACAACCCCGAGGTGGGCAAGGGCACGCAC
GTGATCATCCCAGTGGGCAAGGGGGGCAGTGGAGGCTGGAAAGCCCAGGTGGTCAAGGCC
AGTGGGCAGAATCTGAACCTGCGGGTCCACACTTCCCCCAACGCCATCATCGGCAAGTTT
CAGTTCACAGTCCGCACACAATCAGACGCTGGGGAGTTCCAGTTGCCCTTTGACCCCCGC
AATGAGATCTACATCCTCTTCAACCCCTGGTGCCCAGAGGACATTGTGTACGTGGACCAT
GAGGATTGGCGGCAGGAGTATGTTCTTAATGAGTCTGGGAGAATTTACTACGGGACCGAA
GCACAGATTGGTGAGCGGACCTGGAACTACGGCCAGTTTGACCACGGGGTGCTGGATGCC
TGCTTATACATCCTGGACCGGCGGGGGATGCCATATGGAGGCCGTGGAGACCCAGTCAAT
GTCTCCCGGGTCATCTCTGCCATGGTGAACTCCCTGGATGACAATGGAGTCCTGATTGGG
AACTGGTCTGGTGATTACTCCCGAGGCACCAACCCATCAGCGTGGGTGGGCAGCGTGGAG
ATCCTGCTTAGCTACCTACGCACGGGATATTCCGTCCCCTATGGCCAGTGCTGGGTCTTT
GCTGGAGTGACCACCACAGTGCTGCGCTGCCTGGGTCTGGCCACCCGTACTGTCACCAAC
TTCAACTCCGCCCACGACACAGACACATCCCTTACCATGGACATCTACTTCGACGAGAAC
ATGAAGCCCCTGGAGCACCTGAACCATGATTCTGTCTGGAACTTCCATGTGTGGAACGAC
TGCTGGATGAAGAGGCCGGATCTGCCCTCGGGCTTTGATGGGTGGCAGGTGGTGGATGCC
ACACCCCAAGAGACTAGCAGTGGCATCTTCTGCTGCGGCCCCTGCTCTGTGGAGTCCATC
AAGAATGGCCTGGTCTACATGAAGTACGACACGCCTTTCATTTTTGCTGAGGTGAATAGT
GACAAGGTGTACTGGCAGCGGCAGGATGATGGCAGCTTCAAGATTGTTTATGTGGAGGAG
AAGGCCATCGGCACACTCATTGTCACAAAGGCCATCAGCTCCAACATGCGGGAGGACATC
ACCTACCTCTATAAGCACCCAGAAGGCTCAGACGCAGAGCGGAAGGCAGTAGAGACAGCA
GCAGCCCACGGCAGCAAACCCAATGTGTATGCCAACCGGGGCTCAGCGGAGGATGTGGCC
ATGCAGGTGGAGGCACAGGACGCGGTGATGGGGCAGGATCTGATGGTCTCTGTGATGCTG
ATCAATCACAGCAGCAGCCGCCGCACAGTGAAACTGCACCTCTACCTCTCAGTCACTTTC
TATACTGGTGTCAGTGGTACCATCTTCAAGGAGACCAAGAAGGAAGTGGAGCTGGCACCA
GGGGCCTCGGACCGTGTGACCATGCCAGTGGCCTACAAGGAATACCGGCCCCATCTTGTG
GACCAGGGGGCCATGCTGCTCAATGTCTCAGGCCACGTCAAGGAGAGCGGGCAGGTGCTG
GCCAAGCAGCACACCTTCCGTCTGCGCACCCCAGACCTCTCCCTCACGTTACTGGGAGCA
GCAGTGGTTGGCCAGGAGTGTGAAGTACAGATTGTCTTCAAGAACCCCCTTCCCGTCACC
CTCACCAATGTCGTCTTCCGGCTCGAAGGCTCTGGGTTACAGAGGCCCAAGATCCTCAAC
GTTGGGGACATTGGAGGCAATGAAACAGTGACACTGCGCCAGTCGTTTGTGCCTGTGCGA
CCAGGCCCCCGCCAGCTCATTGCCAGCTTGGACAGCCCACAGCTCTCCCAGGTGCACGGT
GTCATCCAGGTGGATGTGGCCCCAGCCCCTGGGGATGGGGGCTTCTTCTCAGACGCTGGA
GGTGACAGTCACTTAGGAGAGACCATCCCTATGGCATCTCGAGGTGGAGCTTAG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 817
Molecular Weight 89786.14
Theoretical pI 6.037
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase K
MMDGPRSDVGRWGGNPLQPPTTPSPEPEPEPDGRSRRGGGRSFWARCCGCCSCRNAADDD
WGPEPSDSRGRGSSSGTRRPGSRGSDSRRPVSRGSGVNAAGDGTIREGMLVVNGVDLLSS
RSDQNRREHHTDEYEYDELIVRRGQPFHMLLLLSRTYESSDRITLELLIGNNPEVGKGTH
VIIPVGKGGSGGWKAQVVKASGQNLNLRVHTSPNAIIGKFQFTVRTQSDAGEFQLPFDPR
NEIYILFNPWCPEDIVYVDHEDWRQEYVLNESGRIYYGTEAQIGERTWNYGQFDHGVLDA
CLYILDRRGMPYGGRGDPVNVSRVISAMVNSLDDNGVLIGNWSGDYSRGTNPSAWVGSVE
ILLSYLRTGYSVPYGQCWVFAGVTTTVLRCLGLATRTVTNFNSAHDTDTSLTMDIYFDEN
MKPLEHLNHDSVWNFHVWNDCWMKRPDLPSGFDGWQVVDATPQETSSGIFCCGPCSVESI
KNGLVYMKYDTPFIFAEVNSDKVYWQRQDDGSFKIVYVEEKAIGTLIVTKAISSNMREDI
TYLYKHPEGSDAERKAVETAAAHGSKPNVYANRGSAEDVAMQVEAQDAVMGQDLMVSVML
INHSSSRRTVKLHLYLSVTFYTGVSGTIFKETKKEVELAPGASDRVTMPVAYKEYRPHLV
DQGAMLLNVSGHVKESGQVLAKQHTFRLRTPDLSLTLLGAAVVGQECEVQIVFKNPLPVT
LTNVVFRLEGSGLQRPKILNVGDIGGNETVTLRQSFVPVRPGPRQLIASLDSPQLSQVHG
VIQVDVAPAPGDGGFFSDAGGDSHLGETIPMASRGGA
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P22735
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name TGM1_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID M55183
GeneCard ID TGM1
GenAtlas ID TGM1
HGNC ID HGNC:11777
References
General References
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  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Phillips MA, Stewart BE, Qin Q, Chakravarty R, Floyd EE, Jetten AM, Rice RH: Primary structure of keratinocyte transglutaminase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Dec;87(23):9333-7. [PubMed:1979171 ]
  4. Yamanishi K, Liew FM, Konishi K, Yasuno H, Doi H, Hirano J, Fukushima S: Molecular cloning of human epidermal transglutaminase cDNA from keratinocytes in culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Mar 29;175(3):906-13. [PubMed:1673840 ]
  5. Kim HC, Idler WW, Kim IG, Han JH, Chung SI, Steinert PM: The complete amino acid sequence of the human transglutaminase K enzyme deduced from the nucleic acid sequences of cDNA clones. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jan 5;266(1):536-9. [PubMed:1670769 ]
  6. Phillips MA, Stewart BE, Rice RH: Genomic structure of keratinocyte transglutaminase. Recruitment of new exon for modified function. J Biol Chem. 1992 Feb 5;267(4):2282-6. [PubMed:1346394 ]
  7. Kim IG, McBride OW, Wang M, Kim SY, Idler WW, Steinert PM: Structure and organization of the human transglutaminase 1 gene. J Biol Chem. 1992 Apr 15;267(11):7710-7. [PubMed:1348508 ]
  8. Yamanishi K, Inazawa J, Liew FM, Nonomura K, Ariyama T, Yasuno H, Abe T, Doi H, Hirano J, Fukushima S: Structure of the gene for human transglutaminase 1. J Biol Chem. 1992 Sep 5;267(25):17858-63. [PubMed:1381356 ]
  9. Polakowska RR, Eickbush T, Falciano V, Razvi F, Goldsmith LA: Organization and evolution of the human epidermal keratinocyte transglutaminase I gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 May 15;89(10):4476-80. [PubMed:1350092 ]
  10. Polakowska R, Herting E, Goldsmith LA: Isolation of cDNA for human epidermal type I transglutaminase. J Invest Dermatol. 1991 Feb;96(2):285-8. [PubMed:1704039 ]
  11. Schroeder WT, Thacher SM, Stewart-Galetka S, Annarella M, Chema D, Siciliano MJ, Davies PJ, Tang HY, Sowa BA, Duvic M: Type I keratinocyte transglutaminase: expression in human skin and psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol. 1992 Jul;99(1):27-34. [PubMed:1351505 ]
  12. Herman ML, Farasat S, Steinbach PJ, Wei MH, Toure O, Fleckman P, Blake P, Bale SJ, Toro JR: Transglutaminase-1 gene mutations in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis: summary of mutations (including 23 novel) and modeling of TGase-1. Hum Mutat. 2009 Apr;30(4):537-47. doi: 10.1002/humu.20952. [PubMed:19241467 ]
  13. Huber M, Rettler I, Bernasconi K, Frenk E, Lavrijsen SP, Ponec M, Bon A, Lautenschlager S, Schorderet DF, Hohl D: Mutations of keratinocyte transglutaminase in lamellar ichthyosis. Science. 1995 Jan 27;267(5197):525-8. [PubMed:7824952 ]
  14. Russell LJ, DiGiovanna JJ, Rogers GR, Steinert PM, Hashem N, Compton JG, Bale SJ: Mutations in the gene for transglutaminase 1 in autosomal recessive lamellar ichthyosis. Nat Genet. 1995 Mar;9(3):279-83. [PubMed:7773290 ]
  15. Laiho E, Ignatius J, Mikkola H, Yee VC, Teller DC, Niemi KM, Saarialho-Kere U, Kere J, Palotie A: Transglutaminase 1 mutations in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis: private and recurrent mutations in an isolated population. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 Sep;61(3):529-38. [PubMed:9326318 ]
  16. Akiyama M, Takizawa Y, Kokaji T, Shimizu H: Novel mutations of TGM1 in a child with congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. Br J Dermatol. 2001 Feb;144(2):401-7. [PubMed:11251583 ]
  17. Yang JM, Ahn KS, Cho MO, Yoneda K, Lee CH, Lee JH, Lee ES, Candi E, Melino G, Ahvazi B, Steinert PM: Novel mutations of the transglutaminase 1 gene in lamellar ichthyosis. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Aug;117(2):214-8. [PubMed:11511296 ]