Survey with prize
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00811
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6091
Name Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1
  1. GST HB subunit 4
  2. GST class-mu 1
  3. GSTM1-1
  4. GSTM1a-1a
  5. GSTM1b-1b
  6. GTH4
Gene Name GSTM1
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
  • Chemical carcinogenesis
  • Cyclophosphamide Action Pathway
  • Cyclophosphamide Metabolism Pathway
  • Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450
RX + Glutathione → HX + R-S-glutathione details
RX + Glutathione → Halide + R-S-Glutathione details
Naphthalene epoxide + Glutathione → (1R)-Hydroxy-(2R)-glutathionyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene details
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide + Glutathione → (1R)-Glutathionyl-(2R)-hydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene details
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide + Glutathione → (1S)-Hydroxy-(2S)-glutathionyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene details
1-Nitronaphthalene-7,8-oxide + Glutathione → 1-Nitro-7-hydroxy-8-glutathionyl-7,8-dihydronaphthalene details
1-Nitronaphthalene-7,8-oxide + Glutathione → 1-Nitro-7-glutathionyl-8-hydroxy-7,8-dihydronaphthalene details
1-Nitronaphthalene-5,6-oxide + Glutathione → 1-Nitro-5-hydroxy-6-glutathionyl-5,6-dihydronaphthalene details
1-Nitronaphthalene-5,6-oxide + Glutathione → 1-Nitro-5-glutathionyl-6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydronaphthalene details
Bromobenzene-3,4-oxide + Glutathione → 3,4-Dihydro-3-hydroxy-4-S-glutathionyl bromobenzene details
Bromobenzene-2,3-oxide + Glutathione → 2,3-Dihydro-2-S-glutathionyl-3-hydroxy bromobenzene details
Benzo[a]pyrene-4,5-oxide + Glutathione → 4,5-Dihydro-4-hydroxy-5-S-glutathionyl-benzo[a]pyrene details
Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol + Glutathione → 7,8-Dihydro-7-hydroxy-8-S-glutathionyl-benzo[a]pyrene + Water details
2,2-Dichloroacetaldehyde + Glutathione → S-(2,2-Dichloro-1-hydroxy)ethyl glutathione details
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric acid details
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric acid details
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric acid details
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric acid details
1,2-Dibromoethane + Glutathione + Hydrogen Ion → Glutathione episulfonium ion + Bromide details
2-Bromoacetaldehyde + Glutathione → S-(Formylmethyl)glutathione + Bromide details
Aldophosphamide + Glutathione → 4-Glutathionyl cyclophosphamide + Water details
2,3-Epoxyaflatoxin B1 + Glutathione → Aflatoxin B1exo-8,9-epoxide-GSH details
GO Classification
Biological Process
cellular detoxification of nitrogen compound
nitrobenzene metabolic process
glutathione metabolic process
xenobiotic catabolic process
Cellular Component
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups
glutathione transferase activity
Molecular Function
glutathione binding
glutathione transferase activity
metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasm
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 1
Locus 1p13.3
Gene Sequence
>657 bp
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 218
Molecular Weight 25711.555
Theoretical pI 6.691
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1
GenBank ID Protein 31924
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P09488
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name GSTM1_HUMAN
GenBank Gene ID X08020
GeneCard ID GSTM1
GenAtlas ID GSTM1
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Hubbard MJ, McHugh NJ: Human ERp29: isolation, primary structural characterisation and two-dimensional gel mapping. Electrophoresis. 2000 Nov;21(17):3785-96. [PubMed:11271497 ]
  3. DeJong JL, Chang CM, Whang-Peng J, Knutsen T, Tu CP: The human liver glutathione S-transferase gene superfamily: expression and chromosome mapping of an Hb subunit cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Sep 12;16(17):8541-54. [PubMed:3419925 ]
  4. Seidegard J, Vorachek WR, Pero RW, Pearson WR: Hereditary differences in the expression of the human glutathione transferase active on trans-stilbene oxide are due to a gene deletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Oct;85(19):7293-7. [PubMed:3174634 ]
  5. Zhong S, Spurr NK, Hayes JD, Wolf CR: Deduced amino acid sequence, gene structure and chromosomal location of a novel human class Mu glutathione S-transferase, GSTM4. Biochem J. 1993 Apr 1;291 ( Pt 1):41-50. [PubMed:8471052 ]
  6. Mera N, Ohmori S, Itahashi K, Kiuchi M, Igarashi T, Rikihisa T, Kitada M: Immunochemical evidence for the occurrence of Mu class glutathione S-transferase in human fetal livers. J Biochem. 1994 Aug;116(2):315-20. [PubMed:7822249 ]
  7. Tsuchida S, Maki T, Sato K: Purification and characterization of glutathione transferases with an activity toward nitroglycerin from human aorta and heart. Multiplicity of the human class Mu forms. J Biol Chem. 1990 May 5;265(13):7150-7. [PubMed:2110160 ]
  8. Alin P, Mannervik B, Jornvall H: Structural evidence for three different types of glutathione transferase in human tissues. FEBS Lett. 1985 Mar 25;182(2):319-22. [PubMed:3979555 ]
  9. Mannervik B, Alin P, Guthenberg C, Jensson H, Tahir MK, Warholm M, Jornvall H: Identification of three classes of cytosolic glutathione transferase common to several mammalian species: correlation between structural data and enzymatic properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Nov;82(21):7202-6. [PubMed:3864155 ]
  10. Singhal SS, Ahmad H, Sharma R, Gupta S, Haque AK, Awasthi YC: Purification and characterization of human muscle glutathione S-transferases: evidence that glutathione S-transferase zeta corresponds to a locus distinct from GST1, GST2, and GST3. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 Feb 15;285(1):64-73. [PubMed:1846734 ]
  11. Singhal SS, Saxena M, Awasthi S, Ahmad H, Sharma R, Awasthi YC: Gender related differences in the expression and characteristics of glutathione S-transferases of human colon. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992 Nov 15;1171(1):19-26. [PubMed:1420361 ]
  12. Comstock KE, Sanderson BJ, Claflin G, Henner WD: GST1 gene deletion determined by polymerase chain reaction. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Jun 25;18(12):3670. [PubMed:2362832 ]
  13. Pearson WR, Vorachek WR, Xu SJ, Berger R, Hart I, Vannais D, Patterson D: Identification of class-mu glutathione transferase genes GSTM1-GSTM5 on human chromosome 1p13. Am J Hum Genet. 1993 Jul;53(1):220-33. [PubMed:8317488 ]
  14. Patskovsky YV, Patskovska LN, Listowsky I: Functions of His107 in the catalytic mechanism of human glutathione S-transferase hGSTM1a-1a. Biochemistry. 1999 Jan 26;38(4):1193-202. [PubMed:9930979 ]