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HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00816
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6096
Name Glutathione S-transferase A1
  1. GST HA subunit 1
  2. GST class-alpha member 1
  3. GST-epsilon
  4. GSTA1-1
  5. GTH1
Gene Name GSTA1
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
  • Chemical carcinogenesis - DNA adducts
  • Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450
RX + Glutathione → HX + R-S-glutathione details
RX + Glutathione → Halide + R-S-Glutathione details
Naphthalene epoxide + Glutathione → (1R)-Hydroxy-(2R)-glutathionyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene details
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide + Glutathione → (1R)-Glutathionyl-(2R)-hydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene details
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide + Glutathione → (1S)-Hydroxy-(2S)-glutathionyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene details
1-Nitronaphthalene-7,8-oxide + Glutathione → 1-Nitro-7-hydroxy-8-glutathionyl-7,8-dihydronaphthalene details
1-Nitronaphthalene-7,8-oxide + Glutathione → 1-Nitro-7-glutathionyl-8-hydroxy-7,8-dihydronaphthalene details
1-Nitronaphthalene-5,6-oxide + Glutathione → 1-Nitro-5-hydroxy-6-glutathionyl-5,6-dihydronaphthalene details
1-Nitronaphthalene-5,6-oxide + Glutathione → 1-Nitro-5-glutathionyl-6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydronaphthalene details
Bromobenzene-3,4-oxide + Glutathione → 3,4-Dihydro-3-hydroxy-4-S-glutathionyl bromobenzene details
Bromobenzene-2,3-oxide + Glutathione → 2,3-Dihydro-2-S-glutathionyl-3-hydroxy bromobenzene details
Benzo[a]pyrene-4,5-oxide + Glutathione → 4,5-Dihydro-4-hydroxy-5-S-glutathionyl-benzo[a]pyrene details
Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol + Glutathione → 7,8-Dihydro-7-hydroxy-8-S-glutathionyl-benzo[a]pyrene + Water details
2,2-Dichloroacetaldehyde + Glutathione → S-(2,2-Dichloro-1-hydroxy)ethyl glutathione details
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric acid details
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric acid details
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric acid details
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric acid details
1,2-Dibromoethane + Glutathione + Hydrogen Ion → Glutathione episulfonium ion + Bromide details
2-Bromoacetaldehyde + Glutathione → S-(Formylmethyl)glutathione + Bromide details
Aldophosphamide + Glutathione → 4-Glutathionyl cyclophosphamide + Water details
2,3-Epoxyaflatoxin B1 + Glutathione → Aflatoxin B1exo-8,9-epoxide-GSH details
GO Classification
Biological Process
glutathione metabolic process
xenobiotic metabolic process
Cellular Component
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups
glutathione transferase activity
Molecular Function
glutathione transferase activity
metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasm
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 6
Locus 6p12.1
Gene Sequence
>669 bp
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 222
Molecular Weight 25630.785
Theoretical pI 8.883
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Glutathione S-transferase A1
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P08263
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name GSTA1_HUMAN
GenBank Gene ID M15872
GeneCard ID GSTA1
GenAtlas ID GSTA1
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Tu CP, Qian B: Human liver glutathione S-transferases: complete primary sequence of an Ha subunit cDNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Nov 26;141(1):229-37. [PubMed:3800996 ]
  3. Rhoads DM, Zarlengo RP, Tu CP: The basic glutathione S-transferases from human livers are products of separate genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 May 29;145(1):474-81. [PubMed:3036131 ]
  4. Tu CP, Qian B: Nucleotide sequence of the human liver glutathione S-transferase subunit 1 cDNA. Biochem Soc Trans. 1987 Aug;15(4):734-6. [PubMed:3678589 ]
  5. Board PG, Webb GC: Isolation of a cDNA clone and localization of human glutathione S-transferase 2 genes to chromosome band 6p12. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr;84(8):2377-81. [PubMed:3031680 ]
  6. Rozen F, Nguyen T, Pickett CB: Isolation and characterization of a human glutathione S-transferase Ha1 subunit gene. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992 Feb 1;292(2):589-93. [PubMed:1731620 ]
  7. Stenberg G, Bjornestedt R, Mannervik B: Heterologous expression of recombinant human glutathione transferase A1-1 from a hepatoma cell line. Protein Expr Purif. 1992 Feb;3(1):80-4. [PubMed:1330133 ]
  8. Chow NW, Whang-Peng J, Kao-Shan CS, Tam MF, Lai HC, Tu CP: Human glutathione S-transferases. The Ha multigene family encodes products of different but overlapping substrate specificities. J Biol Chem. 1988 Sep 15;263(26):12797-800. [PubMed:3138230 ]
  9. Ahmad H, Singhal SS, Saxena M, Awasthi YC: Characterization of two novel subunits of the alpha-class glutathione S-transferases of human liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Feb 13;1161(2-3):333-6. [PubMed:8431482 ]
  10. Hayes JD, Kerr LA, Cronshaw AD: Evidence that glutathione S-transferases B1B1 and B2B2 are the products of separate genes and that their expression in human liver is subject to inter-individual variation. Molecular relationships between the B1 and B2 subunits and other Alpha class glutathione S-transferases. Biochem J. 1989 Dec 1;264(2):437-45. [PubMed:2604726 ]
  11. Board PG, Mannervik B: The contribution of the C-terminal sequence to the catalytic activity of GST2, a human alpha-class glutathione transferase. Biochem J. 1991 Apr 1;275 ( Pt 1):171-4. [PubMed:2018473 ]
  12. Sinning I, Kleywegt GJ, Cowan SW, Reinemer P, Dirr HW, Huber R, Gilliland GL, Armstrong RN, Ji X, Board PG, et al.: Structure determination and refinement of human alpha class glutathione transferase A1-1, and a comparison with the Mu and Pi class enzymes. J Mol Biol. 1993 Jul 5;232(1):192-212. [PubMed:8331657 ]
  13. Cameron AD, Sinning I, L'Hermite G, Olin B, Board PG, Mannervik B, Jones TA: Structural analysis of human alpha-class glutathione transferase A1-1 in the apo-form and in complexes with ethacrynic acid and its glutathione conjugate. Structure. 1995 Jul 15;3(7):717-27. [PubMed:8591048 ]