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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01086
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6375
Name Gamma-enolase
Synonyms
  1. 2-phospho-D-glycerate hydro-lyase
  2. Enolase 2
  3. NSE
  4. Neural enolase
  5. Neuron-specific enolase
Gene Name ENO2
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific Function Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By similarity).
Pathways
  • glycolysis
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • HIF-1 signaling pathway
  • RNA degradation
Reactions
2-Phospho-D-glyceric acid → Phosphoenolpyruvic acid + Water details
GO Classification
Biological Process
small molecule metabolic process
glycolysis
response to drug
gluconeogenesis
response to estradiol stimulus
Cellular Component
cytosol
phosphopyruvate hydratase complex
photoreceptor inner segment
plasma membrane
perikaryon
Component
macromolecular complex
protein complex
phosphopyruvate hydratase complex
Function
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
catalytic activity
magnesium ion binding
lyase activity
carbon-oxygen lyase activity
hydro-lyase activity
phosphopyruvate hydratase activity
Molecular Function
magnesium ion binding
phosphopyruvate hydratase activity
Process
metabolic process
small molecule metabolic process
alcohol metabolic process
monosaccharide metabolic process
hexose metabolic process
glucose metabolic process
glucose catabolic process
glycolysis
Cellular Location
  1. Cell membrane
  2. Cytoplasm
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 12
Locus 12p13
SNPs ENO2
Gene Sequence
>1299 bp
TCCATACAGAAGATCTGGGCCCGGGAGATCCTGGACTCCCGTGGGAACCCCACAGTGGAG
GTGGATCTCTATACTGCCAAAGGTCTTTTCCGGGCTGCAGTGCCCAGTGGAGCCTCTACG
GGCATCTATGAGGCCCTGGAGCTGAGGGATGGAGACAAACAGCGTTACTTAGGCAAAGGT
GTCCTGAAGGCAGTGGACCACATCAACTCCACCATCGCGCCAGCCCTCATCAGCTCAGGT
CTCTCTGTGGTGGAGCAAGAGAAGCTGGACAACCTGATGCTGGAGTTGGATGGGACTGAG
AACAAATCCAAGTTTGGGGCCAATGCCATCCTGGGTGTGTCTCTGGCCGTGTGTAAGGCA
GGGGCAGCTGAGCGGGAACTGCCCCTGTATCGCCACATTGCTCAGCTGGCCGGGAACTCA
GACCTCATCCTGCCTGTGCCGGCCTTCAACGTGATCAATGGTGGCTCTCATGCTGGCAAC
AAGCTGGCCATGCAGGAGTTCATGATCCTCCCAGTGGGAGCTGAGAGCTTTCGGGATGCC
ATGCGACTAGGTGCAGAGGTCTACCATACTCTCAAGGGAGTCATCAAGGACAAATACGGC
AAGGATGCCACCAATGTGGGGGATGAAGGTGGCTTTGCCCCCAATATCCTGGAGAACAGT
GAAGCCTTGGAGCTGGTTAAGGAAGCCATCGACAAGGCTGGCTACACGGAAAAAATGGTT
ATTGGCATGGATGTTGCTGCCTCAGAGTTTTATCGTGATGGCAAATATGACTTGGACTTC
AAGTCTCCCACTGATCCTTCCCGATACATCACTGGGGACCAGCTGGGGGCACTCTACCAG
GACTTTGTCAGGGACTATCCTGTGGTCTCCATTGAGGACCCATTTGACCAGGATGATTGG
GCTGCCTGGTCCAAGTTCACAGCCAATGTAGGGATCCAGATTGTGGGTGATGACCTGACA
GTGACCAACCCAAAACGTATTGAGCGGGCAGTGGAAGAAAAGGCCTGCAACTGTCTGCTG
CTCAAGGTCAACCAGATCGGCTCGGTCACTGAAGCCATCCAAGCGTGCAAGCTGGCCCAG
GAGAATGGCTGGGGGGTCATGGTGAGTCATCGCTCAGGAGAGACTGAGGACACATTCATT
GCTGACCTGGTGGTGGGGCTGTGCACAGGCCAGATCAAGACTGGTGCCCCGTGCCGTTCT
GAACGTCTGGCTAAATACAATCAGCTCATGAGAATTGAGGAAGAGCTGGGGGATGAAGCT
CGCTTTGCCGGACATAACTTCCGTAATCCCAGTGTGCTG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 434
Molecular Weight 47268.125
Theoretical pI 5.029
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Gamma-enolase
MSIEKIWAREILDSRGNPTVEVDLYTAKGLFRAAVPSGASTGIYEALELRDGDKQRYLGK
GVLKAVDHINSTIAPALISSGLSVVEQEKLDNLMLELDGTENKSKFGANAILGVSLAVCK
AGAAERELPLYRHIAQLAGNSDLILPVPAFNVINGGSHAGNKLAMQEFMILPVGAESFRD
AMRLGAEVYHTLKGVIKDKYGKDATNVGDEGGFAPNILENSEALELVKEAIDKAGYTEKI
VIGMDVAASEFYRDGKYDLDFKSPTDPSRYITGDQLGALYQDFVRDYPVVSIEDPFDQDD
WAAWSKFTANVGIQIVGDDLTVTNPKRIERAVEEKACNCLLLKVNQIGSVTEAIQACKLA
QENGWGVMVSHRSGETEDTFIADLVVGLCTGQIKTGAPCRSERLAKYNQLMRIEEELGDE
ARFAGHNFRNPSVL
GenBank ID Protein 930063
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P09104
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ENOG_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID X13120
GeneCard ID ENO2
GenAtlas ID ENO2
HGNC ID HGNC:3353
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD, Comb MJ: Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2005 Jan;23(1):94-101. Epub 2004 Dec 12. [PubMed:15592455 ]
  3. Rikova K, Guo A, Zeng Q, Possemato A, Yu J, Haack H, Nardone J, Lee K, Reeves C, Li Y, Hu Y, Tan Z, Stokes M, Sullivan L, Mitchell J, Wetzel R, Macneill J, Ren JM, Yuan J, Bakalarski CE, Villen J, Kornhauser JM, Smith B, Li D, Zhou X, Gygi SP, Gu TL, Polakiewicz RD, Rush J, Comb MJ: Global survey of phosphotyrosine signaling identifies oncogenic kinases in lung cancer. Cell. 2007 Dec 14;131(6):1190-203. [PubMed:18083107 ]
  4. Zhang Y, Wolf-Yadlin A, Ross PL, Pappin DJ, Rush J, Lauffenburger DA, White FM: Time-resolved mass spectrometry of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling network reveals dynamic modules. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2005 Sep;4(9):1240-50. Epub 2005 Jun 11. [PubMed:15951569 ]
  5. Heibeck TH, Ding SJ, Opresko LK, Zhao R, Schepmoes AA, Yang F, Tolmachev AV, Monroe ME, Camp DG 2nd, Smith RD, Wiley HS, Qian WJ: An extensive survey of tyrosine phosphorylation revealing new sites in human mammary epithelial cells. J Proteome Res. 2009 Aug;8(8):3852-61. doi: 10.1021/pr900044c. [PubMed:19534553 ]
  6. McAleese SM, Dunbar B, Fothergill JE, Hinks LJ, Day IN: Complete amino acid sequence of the neurone-specific gamma isozyme of enolase (NSE) from human brain and comparison with the non-neuronal alpha form (NNE). Eur J Biochem. 1988 Dec 15;178(2):413-7. [PubMed:3208766 ]
  7. Van Obberghen E, Kamholz J, Bishop JG 3rd, Zomzely-Neurath C, Lazzarini RA, Lazzarini RA: Human gamma enolase: isolation of a cDNA clone and expression in normal and tumor tissues of human origin. J Neurosci Res. 1988 Apr;19(4):450-6. [PubMed:3385803 ]
  8. Oliva D, Barba G, Barbieri G, Giallongo A, Feo S: Cloning, expression and sequence homologies of cDNA for human gamma enolase. Gene. 1989 Jul 15;79(2):355-60. [PubMed:2792767 ]
  9. Oliva D, Cali L, Feo S, Giallongo A: Complete structure of the human gene encoding neuron-specific enolase. Genomics. 1991 May;10(1):157-65. [PubMed:2045099 ]
  10. Ansari-Lari MA, Shen Y, Muzny DM, Lee W, Gibbs RA: Large-scale sequencing in human chromosome 12p13: experimental and computational gene structure determination. Genome Res. 1997 Mar;7(3):268-80. [PubMed:9074930 ]
  11. Day IN, Allsopp MT, Moore DC, Thompson RJ: Sequence conservation in the 3'-untranslated regions of neurone-specific enolase, lymphokine and protooncogene mRNAs. FEBS Lett. 1987 Sep 28;222(1):139-43. [PubMed:3653393 ]
  12. Chai G, Brewer JM, Lovelace LL, Aoki T, Minor W, Lebioda L: Expression, purification and the 1.8 angstroms resolution crystal structure of human neuron specific enolase. J Mol Biol. 2004 Aug 20;341(4):1015-21. [PubMed:15289101 ]