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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01284
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6580
Name Bifunctional polynucleotide phosphatase/kinase
Synonyms
  1. 2'(3')-polynucleotidase
  2. DNA 5'-kinase/3'-phosphatase
  3. Polynucleotide 3'-phosphatase
  4. Polynucleotide 5'-hydroxyl-kinase
  5. Polynucleotide kinase-3'-phosphatase
Gene Name PNKP
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in ATP binding
Specific Function Plays a key role in the repair of DNA damage, functioning as part of both the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and base excision repair (BER) pathways. Through its two catalytic activities, PNK ensures that DNA termini are compatible with extension and ligation by either removing 3'-phosphates from, or by phosphorylating 5'-hydroxyl groups on, the ribose sugar of the DNA backbone.
Pathways Not Available
Reactions
A 3'-phosphopolynucleotide + Water → a polynucleotide + Phosphate details
Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-dephospho-DNA → ADP + 5'-phospho-DNA details
GO Classification
Biological Process
response to oxidative stress
nucleotide-excision repair, DNA damage removal
DNA-dependent DNA replication
response to radiation
DNA damage response, detection of DNA damage
Cellular Component
nucleolus
Molecular Function
endonuclease activity
ATP binding
double-stranded DNA binding
ATP-dependent polydeoxyribonucleotide 5'-hydroxyl-kinase activity
polynucleotide 3'-phosphatase activity
damaged DNA binding
nucleotide kinase activity
Cellular Location
  1. Nucleus
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 19
Locus 19q13.3-q13.4
SNPs PNKP
Gene Sequence
>1566 bp
ATGGGCGAGGTGGAGGCCCCGGGCCGCTTGTGGCTCGAGAGCCCCCCTGGGGGAGCGCCC
CCCATCTTCCTGCCCTCGGACGGGCAAGCCCTGGTCCTGGGCAGGGGACCCCTGACCCAG
GTTACGGACCGGAAGTGCTCCAGAACTCAAGTGGAGCTGGTCGCAGATCCTGAGACCCGG
ACAGTGGCAGTGAAACAGCTGGGAGTTAACCCCTCAACTACCGGGACCCAGGAGTTGAAG
CCGGGGTTGGAGGGCTCTCTGGGGGTGGGGGACACACTGTATTTGGTCAATGGCCTCCAC
CCACTGACCCTGCGCTGGGAAGAGACCCGCACACCAGAATCCCAGCCAGATACTCCGCCT
GGCACCCCTCTGGTGTCCCAAGATGAGAAGAGAGATGCTGAGCTGCCGAAGAAGCGTATG
CGGAAGTCAAACCCCGGCTGGGAGAACTTGGAGAAGTTGCTAGTGTTCACCGCAGCTGGG
GTGAAACCCCAGGGCAAGGTGGCTGGCTTTGATCTGGACGGGACGCTCATCACCACACGC
TCTGGGAAGGTCTTTCCCACTGGCCCCAGTGACTGGAGGATCTTGTACCCAGAGATTCCC
CGTAAGCTCCGAGAGCTGGAAGCCGAGGGCTACAAGCTGGTGATCTTCACCAACCAGATG
AGCATCGGGCGCGGGAAGCTGCCAGCCGAGGAGTTCAAGGCCAAGGTGGAGGCTGTGGTG
GAGAAGCTGGGGGTCCCCTTCCAGGTGCTGGTGGCCACGCACGCAGGCTTGTACCGGAAG
CCGGTGACGGGCATGTGGGACCATCTGCAGGAGCAGGCCAACGACGGCACGCCCATATCC
ATCGGGGACAGCATCTTTGTGGGAGACGCAGCCGGACGCCCGGCCAACTGGGCCCCGGGG
CGGAAGAAGAAAGACTTCTCCTGCGCCGATCGCCTGTTTGCCCTCAACCTTGGCCTGCCC
TTCGCCACGCCTGAGGAGTTCTTTCTCAAGTGGCCAGCAGCCGGCTTCGAGCTCCCAGCC
TTTGATCCGAGGACTGTCTCCCGCTCAGGGCCTCTCTGCCTCCCCGAGTCCAGGGCCCTC
CTGAGCGCCAGCCCGGAGGTGGTTGTCGCAGTGGGATTCCCTGGGGCCGGGAAGTCCACC
TTTCTCAAGAAGCACCTCGTGTCGGCCGGATATGTCCACGTGAACAGGGACACGCTAGGC
TCCTGGCAGCGCTGTGTGACCACGTGTGAGACAGCCCTGAAGCAAGGGAAACGGGTCGCC
ATCGACAACACAAACCCAGACGCCGCGAGCCGCGCCAGGTACGTCCAGTGTGCCCGAGCC
GCGGGCGTCCCCTGCCGCTGCTTCCTCTTCACCGCCACTCTGGAGCAGGCGCGCCACAAC
AACCGGTTTCGAGAGATGACGGACTCCTCTCATATCCCCGTGTCAGACATGGTCATGTAT
GGCTACAGGAAGCAGTTCGAGGCCCCAACGCTGGCTGAAGGCTTCTCTGCCATCCTGGAG
ATCCCGTTCCGGCTATGGGTGGAGCCGAGGCTGGGGCGGCTGTACTGCCAGTTCTCCGAG
GGCTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 521
Molecular Weight 57075.9
Theoretical pI 8.46
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Bifunctional polynucleotide phosphatase/kinase
MGEVEAPGRLWLESPPGGAPPIFLPSDGQALVLGRGPLTQVTDRKCSRTQVELVADPETR
TVAVKQLGVNPSTTGTQELKPGLEGSLGVGDTLYLVNGLHPLTLRWEETRTPESQPDTPP
GTPLVSQDEKRDAELPKKRMRKSNPGWENLEKLLVFTAAGVKPQGKVAGFDLDGTLITTR
SGKVFPTGPSDWRILYPEIPRKLRELEAEGYKLVIFTNQMSIGRGKLPAEEFKAKVEAVV
EKLGVPFQVLVATHAGLYRKPVTGMWDHLQEQANDGTPISIGDSIFVGDAAGRPANWAPG
RKKKDFSCADRLFALNLGLPFATPEEFFLKWPAAGFELPAFDPRTVSRSGPLCLPESRAL
LSASPEVVVAVGFPGAGKSTFLKKHLVSAGYVHVNRDTLGSWQRCVTTCETALKQGKRVA
IDNTNPDAASRARYVQCARAAGVPCRCFLFTATLEQARHNNRFREMTDSSHIPVSDMVMY
GYRKQFEAPTLAEGFSAILEIPFRLWVEPRLGRLYCQFSEG
GenBank ID Protein 31543419
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q96T60
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PNKP_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID NM_007254.3
GeneCard ID PNKP
GenAtlas ID PNKP
HGNC ID HGNC:9154
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Dephoure N, Zhou C, Villen J, Beausoleil SA, Bakalarski CE, Elledge SJ, Gygi SP: A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 5;105(31):10762-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805139105. Epub 2008 Jul 31. [PubMed:18669648 ]
  3. Mayya V, Lundgren DH, Hwang SI, Rezaul K, Wu L, Eng JK, Rodionov V, Han DK: Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions. Sci Signal. 2009 Aug 18;2(84):ra46. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2000007. [PubMed:19690332 ]
  4. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M: Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks. Cell. 2006 Nov 3;127(3):635-48. [PubMed:17081983 ]
  5. Gauci S, Helbig AO, Slijper M, Krijgsveld J, Heck AJ, Mohammed S: Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. Anal Chem. 2009 Jun 1;81(11):4493-501. doi: 10.1021/ac9004309. [PubMed:19413330 ]
  6. Matsuoka S, Ballif BA, Smogorzewska A, McDonald ER 3rd, Hurov KE, Luo J, Bakalarski CE, Zhao Z, Solimini N, Lerenthal Y, Shiloh Y, Gygi SP, Elledge SJ: ATM and ATR substrate analysis reveals extensive protein networks responsive to DNA damage. Science. 2007 May 25;316(5828):1160-6. [PubMed:17525332 ]
  7. Grimwood J, Gordon LA, Olsen A, Terry A, Schmutz J, Lamerdin J, Hellsten U, Goodstein D, Couronne O, Tran-Gyamfi M, Aerts A, Altherr M, Ashworth L, Bajorek E, Black S, Branscomb E, Caenepeel S, Carrano A, Caoile C, Chan YM, Christensen M, Cleland CA, Copeland A, Dalin E, Dehal P, Denys M, Detter JC, Escobar J, Flowers D, Fotopulos D, Garcia C, Georgescu AM, Glavina T, Gomez M, Gonzales E, Groza M, Hammon N, Hawkins T, Haydu L, Ho I, Huang W, Israni S, Jett J, Kadner K, Kimball H, Kobayashi A, Larionov V, Leem SH, Lopez F, Lou Y, Lowry S, Malfatti S, Martinez D, McCready P, Medina C, Morgan J, Nelson K, Nolan M, Ovcharenko I, Pitluck S, Pollard M, Popkie AP, Predki P, Quan G, Ramirez L, Rash S, Retterer J, Rodriguez A, Rogers S, Salamov A, Salazar A, She X, Smith D, Slezak T, Solovyev V, Thayer N, Tice H, Tsai M, Ustaszewska A, Vo N, Wagner M, Wheeler J, Wu K, Xie G, Yang J, Dubchak I, Furey TS, DeJong P, Dickson M, Gordon D, Eichler EE, Pennacchio LA, Richardson P, Stubbs L, Rokhsar DS, Myers RM, Rubin EM, Lucas SM: The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19. Nature. 2004 Apr 1;428(6982):529-35. [PubMed:15057824 ]
  8. Jilani A, Ramotar D, Slack C, Ong C, Yang XM, Scherer SW, Lasko DD: Molecular cloning of the human gene, PNKP, encoding a polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase and evidence for its role in repair of DNA strand breaks caused by oxidative damage. J Biol Chem. 1999 Aug 20;274(34):24176-86. [PubMed:10446192 ]
  9. Karimi-Busheri F, Daly G, Robins P, Canas B, Pappin DJ, Sgouros J, Miller GG, Fakhrai H, Davis EM, Le Beau MM, Weinfeld M: Molecular characterization of a human DNA kinase. J Biol Chem. 1999 Aug 20;274(34):24187-94. [PubMed:10446193 ]