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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01379
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6675
Name Galactokinase
Synonyms
  1. Galactose kinase
Gene Name GALK1
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in galactokinase activity
Specific Function Major enzyme for galactose metabolism.
Pathways
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Galactose Metabolism
  • Galactosemia
  • Galactosemia II (GALK)
  • Galactosemia III
  • Nucleotide Sugars Metabolism
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Beta-D-Galactose → ADP + Galactose 1-phosphate details
GO Classification
Biological Process
small molecule metabolic process
galactose catabolic process
galactitol metabolic process
Cellular Component
cytosol
Component
cell part
intracellular part
cytoplasm
Function
binding
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups
kinase activity
nucleoside binding
purine nucleoside binding
adenyl nucleotide binding
adenyl ribonucleotide binding
atp binding
phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor
galactokinase activity
Molecular Function
ATP binding
galactokinase activity
galactose binding
Process
phosphorus metabolic process
phosphate metabolic process
metabolic process
galactose metabolic process
cellular metabolic process
small molecule metabolic process
alcohol metabolic process
monosaccharide metabolic process
hexose metabolic process
phosphorylation
carbohydrate phosphorylation
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 17
Locus 17q24
SNPs GALK1
Gene Sequence
>1179 bp
ATGGCTGCTTTGAGACAGCCCCAGGTCGCGGAGCTGCTGGCCGAGGCCCGGCGAGCCTTC
CGGGAGGAGTTCGGGGCCGAGCCCGAGCTGGCCGTGTCAGCGCCGGGCCGCGTCAACCTC
ATCGGGGAACACACGGACTACAACCAGGGCCTGGTGCTGCCTATGGCTCTGGAGCTCATG
ACGGTGCTGGTGGGCAGCCCCCGCAAGGATGGGCTGGTGTCTCTCCTCACCACCTCTGAG
GGTGCCGATGAGCCCCAGCGGCTGCAGTTTCCACTGCCCACAGCCCAGCGCTCGCTGGAG
CCTGGGACTCCTCGGTGGGCCAACTATGTCAAGGGAGTGATTCAGTACTACCCAGCTGCC
CCCCTCCCTGGCTTCAGTGCAGTGGTGGTCAGCTCAGTGCCCCTGGGGGGTGGCCTGTCC
AGCTCAGCATCCTTGGAAGTGGCCACGTACACCTTCCTCCAGCAGCTCTGTCCAGACTCG
GGCACAATAGCTGCCCGCGCCCAGGTGTGTCAGCAGGCCGAGCACAGCTTCGCAGGGATG
CCCTGTGGCATCATGGACCAGTTCATCTCACTTATGGGACAGAAAGGCCACGCGCTGCTC
ATTGACTGCAGGTCCTTGGAGACCAGCCTGGTGCCACTCTCGGACCCCAAGCTGGCCGTG
CTCATCACCAACTCTAATGTCCGCCACTCCCTGGCCTCCAGCGAGTACCCTGTGCGGCGG
CGCCAATGTGAAGAAGTGGCCCGGGCGCTGGGCAAGGAAAGCCTCCGGGAGGTACAACTG
GAAGAGCTAGAGGCTGCCAGGGACCTGGTGAGCAAAGAGGGCTTCCGGCGGGCCCGGCAC
GTGGTGGGGGAGATTCGGCGCACGGCCCAGGCAGCGGCCGCCCTGAGACGTGGCGACTAC
AGAGCCTTTGGCCGCCTCATGGTGGAGAGCCACCGCTCACTCAGAGACGACTATGAGGTG
AGCTGCCCAGAGCTGGACCAGCTGGTGGAGGCTGCGCTTGCTGTGCCTGGGGTTTATGGC
AGCCGCATGACGGGCGGTGGCTTCGGTGGCTGCACGGTGACACTGCTGGAGGCCTCCGCT
GCTCCCCACGCCATGCGGCACATCCAGGAGCACTACGGCGGGACTGCCACCTTCTACCTC
TCTCAAGCAGCCGATGGAGCCAAGGTGCTGTGCTTGTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 392
Molecular Weight 42271.805
Theoretical pI 6.456
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Galactokinase
MAALRQPQVAELLAEARRAFREEFGAEPELAVSAPGRVNLIGEHTDYNQGLVLPMALELM
TVLVGSPRKDGLVSLLTTSEGADEPQRLQFPLPTAQRSLEPGTPRWANYVKGVIQYYPAA
PLPGFSAVVVSSVPLGGGLSSSASLEVATYTFLQQLCPDSGTIAARAQVCQQAEHSFAGM
PCGIMDQFISLMGQKGHALLIDCRSLETSLVPLSDPKLAVLITNSNVRHSLASSEYPVRR
RQCEEVARALGKESLREVQLEELEAARDLVSKEGFRRARHVVGEIRRTAQAAAALRRGDY
RAFGRLMVESHRSLRDDYEVSCPELDQLVEAALAVPGVYGSRMTGGGFGGCTVTLLEASA
APHAMRHIQEHYGGTATFYLSQAADGAKVLCL
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P51570
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name GALK1_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID U26401
GeneCard ID GALK1
GenAtlas ID GALK1
HGNC ID HGNC:4118
References
General References
  1. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. [PubMed:14702039 ]
  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Ai Y, Basu M, Bergsma DJ, Stambolian D: Comparison of the enzymatic activities of human galactokinase GALK1 and a related human galactokinase protein GK2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Jul 17;212(2):687-91. [PubMed:7542884 ]
  4. Stambolian D, Ai Y, Sidjanin D, Nesburn K, Sathe G, Rosenberg M, Bergsma DJ: Cloning of the galactokinase cDNA and identification of mutations in two families with cataracts. Nat Genet. 1995 Jul;10(3):307-12. [PubMed:7670469 ]
  5. Bergsma DJ, Ai Y, Skach WR, Nesburn K, Anoia E, Van Horn S, Stambolian D: Fine structure of the human galactokinase GALK1 gene. Genome Res. 1996 Oct;6(10):980-5. [PubMed:8908517 ]
  6. Kalaydjieva L, Perez-Lezaun A, Angelicheva D, Onengut S, Dye D, Bosshard NU, Jordanova A, Savov A, Yanakiev P, Kremensky I, Radeva B, Hallmayer J, Markov A, Nedkova V, Tournev I, Aneva L, Gitzelmann R: A founder mutation in the GK1 gene is responsible for galactokinase deficiency in Roma (Gypsies). Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Nov;65(5):1299-307. [PubMed:10521295 ]
  7. Kolosha V, Anoia E, de Cespedes C, Gitzelmann R, Shih L, Casco T, Saborio M, Trejos R, Buist N, Tedesco T, Skach W, Mitelmann O, Ledee D, Huang K, Stambolian D: Novel mutations in 13 probands with galactokinase deficiency. Hum Mutat. 2000;15(5):447-53. [PubMed:10790206 ]
  8. Okano Y, Asada M, Fujimoto A, Ohtake A, Murayama K, Hsiao KJ, Choeh K, Yang Y, Cao Q, Reichardt JK, Niihira S, Imamura T, Yamano T: A genetic factor for age-related cataract: identification and characterization of a novel galactokinase variant, "Osaka," in Asians. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Apr;68(4):1036-42. Epub 2001 Feb 23. [PubMed:11231902 ]
  9. Hunter M, Angelicheva D, Levy HL, Pueschel SM, Kalaydjieva L: Novel mutations in the GALK1 gene in patients with galactokinase deficiency. Hum Mutat. 2001;17(1):77-8. [PubMed:11139256 ]
  10. Timson DJ, Reece RJ: Functional analysis of disease-causing mutations in human galactokinase. Eur J Biochem. 2003 Apr;270(8):1767-74. [PubMed:12694189 ]
  11. Maraini G, Hejtmancik JF, Shiels A, Mackay DS, Aldigeri R, Jiao XD, Williams SL, Sperduto RD, Reed G: Galactokinase gene mutations and age-related cataract. Lack of association in an Italian population. Mol Vis. 2003 Aug 26;9:397-400. [PubMed:12942049 ]
  12. Sangiuolo F, Magnani M, Stambolian D, Novelli G: Biochemical characterization of two GALK1 mutations in patients with galactokinase deficiency. Hum Mutat. 2004 Apr;23(4):396. [PubMed:15024738 ]