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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01620
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6943
Name Apolipoprotein A-I
Synonyms
  1. Apo-AI
  2. ApoA-I
  3. Apolipoprotein A-I(1-242)
  4. Apolipoprotein A1
Gene Name APOA1
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in lipid binding
Specific Function Participates in the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion by promoting cholesterol efflux from tissues and by acting as a cofactor for the lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). As part of the SPAP complex, activates spermatozoa motility
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Component
extracellular region
Function
binding
lipid binding
Process
metabolic process
macromolecule metabolic process
cellular macromolecule metabolic process
establishment of localization
transport
lipoprotein metabolic process
lipid transport
Cellular Location
  1. Secreted
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Locus 11q23-q24
SNPs APOA1
Gene Sequence
>804 bp
ATGAAAGCTGCGGTGCTGACCTTGGCCGTGCTCTTCCTGACGGGGAGCCAGGCTCGGCAT
TTCTGGCAGCAAGATGAACCCCCCCAGAGCCCCTGGGATCGAGTGAAGGACCTGGCCACT
GTGTACGTGGATGTGCTCAAAGACAGCGGCAGAGACTATGTGTCCCAGTTTGAAGGCTCC
GCCTTGGGAAAACAGCTAAACCTAAAGCTCCTTGACAACTGGGACAGCGTGACCTCCACC
TTCAGCAAGCTGCGCGAACAGCTCGGCCCTGTGACCCAGGAGTTCTGGGATAACCTGGAA
AAGGAGACAGAGGGCCTGAGGCAGGAGATGAGCAAGGATCTGGAGGAGGTGAAGGCCAAG
GTGCAGCCCTACCTGGACGACTTCCAGAAGAAGTGGCAGGAGGAGATGGAGCTCTACCGC
CAGAAGGTGGAGCCGCTGCGCGCAGAGCTCCAAGAGGGCGCGCGCCAGAAGCTGCACGAG
CTGCAAGAGAAGCTGAGCCCACTGGGCGAGGAGATGCGCGACCGCGCGCGCGCCCATGTG
GACGCGCTGCGCACGCATCTGGCCCCCTACAGCGACGAGCTGCGCCAGCGCTTGGCCGCG
CGCCTTGAGGCTCTCAAGGAGAACGGCGGCGCCAGACTGGCCGAGTACCACGCCAAGGCC
ACCGAGCATCTGAGCACGCTCAGCGAGAAGGCCAAGCCCGCGCTCGAGGACCTCCGCCAA
GGCCTGCTGCCCGTGCTGGAGAGCTTCAAGGTCAGCTTCCTGAGCGCTCTCGAGGAGTAC
ACTAAGAAGCTCAACACCCAGTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 267
Molecular Weight 30777.6
Theoretical pI 5.5
Pfam Domain Function
Signals
  • 1-18
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
>Apolipoprotein A-I
MKAAVLTLAVLFLTGSQARHFWQQDEPPQSPWDRVKDLATVYVDVLKDSGRDYVSQFEGS
ALGKQLNLKLLDNWDSVTSTFSKLREQLGPVTQEFWDNLEKETEGLRQEMSKDLEEVKAK
VQPYLDDFQKKWQEEMELYRQKVEPLRAELQEGARQKLHELQEKLSPLGEEMRDRARAHV
DALRTHLAPYSDELRQRLAARLEALKENGGARLAEYHAKATEHLSTLSEKAKPALEDLRQ
GLLPVLESFKVSFLSALEEYTKKLNTQ
GenBank ID Protein 28772
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P02647
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name APOA1_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID X02162
GeneCard ID APOA1
GenAtlas ID APOA1
HGNC ID HGNC:600
References
General References
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  3. Corbett JM, Wheeler CH, Baker CS, Yacoub MH, Dunn MJ: The human myocardial two-dimensional gel protein database: update 1994. Electrophoresis. 1994 Nov;15(11):1459-65. [PubMed:7895732 ]
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  5. Morabia A, Cayanis E, Costanza MC, Ross BM, Flaherty MS, Alvin GB, Das K, Gilliam TC: Association of extreme blood lipid profile phenotypic variation with 11 reverse cholesterol transport genes and 10 non-genetic cardiovascular disease risk factors. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Nov 1;12(21):2733-43. Epub 2003 Sep 9. [PubMed:12966036 ]
  6. Shoulders CC, Kornblihtt AR, Munro BS, Baralle FE: Gene structure of human apolipoprotein A1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 May 11;11(9):2827-37. [PubMed:6406984 ]
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  9. Seilhamer JJ, Protter AA, Frossard P, Levy-Wilson B: Isolation and DNA sequence of full-length cDNA and of the entire gene for human apolipoprotein AI--discovery of a new genetic polymorphism in the apo AI gene. DNA. 1984 Aug;3(4):309-17. [PubMed:6207999 ]
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  11. Law SW, Brewer HB Jr: Nucleotide sequence and the encoded amino acids of human apolipoprotein A-I mRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jan;81(1):66-70. [PubMed:6198645 ]
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  13. Makrides SC, Ruiz-Opazo N, Hayden M, Nussbaum AL, Breslow JL, Zannis VI: Sequence and expression of Tangier apoA-I gene. Eur J Biochem. 1988 Apr 15;173(2):465-71. [PubMed:3129297 ]
  14. Moguilevsky N, Roobol C, Loriau R, Guillaume JP, Jacobs P, Cravador A, Herzog A, Brouwers L, Scarso A, Gilles P, et al.: Production of human recombinant proapolipoprotein A-I in Escherichia coli: purification and biochemical characterization. DNA. 1989 Jul-Aug;8(6):429-36. [PubMed:2673706 ]
  15. Fullerton SM, Buchanan AV, Sonpar VA, Taylor SL, Smith JD, Carlson CS, Salomaa V, Stengard JH, Boerwinkle E, Clark AG, Nickerson DA, Weiss KM: The effects of scale: variation in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster. Hum Genet. 2004 Jun;115(1):36-56. Epub 2004 Apr 24. [PubMed:15108119 ]
  16. Brewer HB Jr, Fairwell T, Kay L, Meng M, Ronan R, Law S, Light JA: Human plasma proapoA-I: isolation and amino-terminal sequence. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1983 Jun 15;113(2):626-32. [PubMed:6409108 ]
  17. Baker HN, Gotto AM Jr, Jackson RL: The primary structure of human plasma high density apolipoprotein glutamine I (ApoA-I). II. The amino acid sequence and alignment of cyanogen bromide fragments IV, III, and I. J Biol Chem. 1975 Apr 10;250(7):2725-38. [PubMed:164450 ]
  18. Brewer HB Jr, Fairwell T, LaRue A, Ronan R, Houser A, Bronzert TJ: The amino acid sequence of human APOA-I, an apolipoprotein isolated from high density lipoproteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1978 Feb 14;80(3):623-30. [PubMed:204308 ]
  19. Yui Y, Aoyama T, Morishita H, Takahashi M, Takatsu Y, Kawai C: Serum prostacyclin stabilizing factor is identical to apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I). A novel function of Apo A-I. J Clin Invest. 1988 Sep;82(3):803-7. [PubMed:3047170 ]
  20. Akerlof E, Jornvall H, Slotte H, Pousette A: Identification of apolipoprotein A1 and immunoglobulin as components of a serum complex that mediates activation of human sperm motility. Biochemistry. 1991 Sep 17;30(37):8986-90. [PubMed:1909888 ]
  21. Manjunath P, Marcel YL, Uma J, Seidah NG, Chretien M, Chapdelaine A: Apolipoprotein A-I binds to a family of bovine seminal plasma proteins. J Biol Chem. 1989 Oct 5;264(28):16853-7. [PubMed:2506184 ]
  22. Prioli RP, Ordovas JM, Rosenberg I, Schaefer EJ, Pereira ME: Similarity of cruzin, an inhibitor of Trypanosoma cruzi neuraminidase, to high-density lipoprotein. Science. 1987 Dec 4;238(4832):1417-9. [PubMed:3120314 ]
  23. Ehnholm C, Bozas SE, Tenkanen H, Kirszbaum L, Metso J, Murphy B, Walker ID: The apolipoprotein A-I binding protein of placenta and the SP-40,40 protein of human blood are different proteins which both bind to apolipoprotein A-I. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991 Nov 27;1086(3):255-60. [PubMed:1742316 ]
  24. Breslow JL, Ross D, McPherson J, Williams H, Kurnit D, Nussbaum AL, Karathanasis SK, Zannis VI: Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human apolipoprotein A-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Nov;79(22):6861-5. [PubMed:6294659 ]
  25. Hoeg JM, Meng MS, Ronan R, Fairwell T, Brewer HB Jr: Human apolipoprotein A-I. Post-translational modification by fatty acid acylation. J Biol Chem. 1986 Mar 25;261(9):3911-4. [PubMed:3005308 ]
  26. Zannis VI, Karathanasis SK, Keutmann HT, Goldberger G, Breslow JL: Intracellular and extracellular processing of human apolipoprotein A-I: secreted apolipoprotein A-I isoprotein 2 is a propeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 May;80(9):2574-8. [PubMed:6405383 ]
  27. Calvo C, Ulloa N, Campos M, Verdugo C, Ayrault-Jarrier M: The preferential site of non-enzymatic glycation of human apolipoprotein A-I in vivo. Clin Chim Acta. 1993 Aug 31;217(2):193-8. [PubMed:8261628 ]
  28. Ritter M, Buechler C, Boettcher A, Barlage S, Schmitz-Madry A, Orso E, Bared SM, Schmiedeknecht G, Baehr CH, Fricker G, Schmitz G: Cloning and characterization of a novel apolipoprotein A-I binding protein, AI-BP, secreted by cells of the kidney proximal tubules in response to HDL or ApoA-I. Genomics. 2002 May;79(5):693-702. [PubMed:11991719 ]
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  32. Borhani DW, Rogers DP, Engler JA, Brouillette CG: Crystal structure of truncated human apolipoprotein A-I suggests a lipid-bound conformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Nov 11;94(23):12291-6. [PubMed:9356442 ]
  33. Nakata K, Kobayashi K, Yanagi H, Shimakura Y, Tsuchiya S, Arinami T, Hamaguchi H: Autosomal dominant hypoalphalipoproteinemia due to a completely defective apolipoprotein A-I gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993 Oct 29;196(2):950-5. [PubMed:8240372 ]
  34. Ng DS, Leiter LA, Vezina C, Connelly PW, Hegele RA: Apolipoprotein A-I Q[-2]X causing isolated apolipoprotein A-I deficiency in a family with analphalipoproteinemia. J Clin Invest. 1994 Jan;93(1):223-9. [PubMed:8282791 ]
  35. Weisgraber KH, Rall SC Jr, Bersot TP, Mahley RW, Franceschini G, Sirtori CR: Apolipoprotein A-IMilano. Detection of normal A-I in affected subjects and evidence for a cysteine for arginine substitution in the variant A-I. J Biol Chem. 1983 Feb 25;258(4):2508-13. [PubMed:6401735 ]
  36. Schmitz G, Assmann G, Rall SC Jr, Mahley RW: Tangier disease: defective recombination of a specific Tangier apolipoprotein A-I isoform (pro-apo A-i) with high density lipoproteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Oct;80(19):6081-5. [PubMed:6412234 ]
  37. Utermann G, Haas J, Steinmetz A, Paetzold R, Rall SC Jr, Weisgraber KH, Mahley RW: Apolipoprotein A-IGiessen (Pro143----Arg). A mutant that is defective in activating lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. Eur J Biochem. 1984 Oct 15;144(2):325-31. [PubMed:6489332 ]
  38. Rall SC Jr, Weisgraber KH, Mahley RW, Ogawa Y, Fielding CJ, Utermann G, Haas J, Steinmetz A, Menzel HJ, Assmann G: Abnormal lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activation by a human apolipoprotein A-I variant in which a single lysine residue is deleted. J Biol Chem. 1984 Aug 25;259(16):10063-70. [PubMed:6432779 ]
  39. Nichols WC, Dwulet FE, Liepnieks J, Benson MD: Variant apolipoprotein AI as a major constituent of a human hereditary amyloid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Oct 31;156(2):762-8. [PubMed:3142462 ]
  40. Nichols WC, Gregg RE, Brewer HB Jr, Benson MD: A mutation in apolipoprotein A-I in the Iowa type of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Genomics. 1990 Oct;8(2):318-23. [PubMed:2123470 ]
  41. Takada Y, Sasaki J, Ogata S, Nakanishi T, Ikehara Y, Arakawa K: Isolation and characterization of human apolipoprotein A-I Fukuoka (110 Glu----Lys). A novel apolipoprotein variant. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Apr 2;1043(2):169-76. [PubMed:2107878 ]
  42. Soutar AK, Hawkins PN, Vigushin DM, Tennent GA, Booth SE, Hutton T, Nguyen O, Totty NF, Feest TG, Hsuan JJ, et al.: Apolipoprotein AI mutation Arg-60 causes autosomal dominant amyloidosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Aug 15;89(16):7389-93. [PubMed:1502149 ]
  43. Ladias JA, Kwiterovich PO Jr, Smith HH, Karathanasis SK, Antonarakis SE: Apolipoprotein A1 Baltimore (Arg10----Leu), a new ApoA1 variant. Hum Genet. 1990 Apr;84(5):439-45. [PubMed:2108924 ]
  44. von Eckardstein A, Funke H, Henke A, Altland K, Benninghoven A, Assmann G: Apolipoprotein A-I variants. Naturally occurring substitutions of proline residues affect plasma concentration of apolipoprotein A-I. J Clin Invest. 1989 Dec;84(6):1722-30. [PubMed:2512329 ]
  45. von Eckardstein A, Funke H, Walter M, Altland K, Benninghoven A, Assmann G: Structural analysis of human apolipoprotein A-I variants. Amino acid substitutions are nonrandomly distributed throughout the apolipoprotein A-I primary structure. J Biol Chem. 1990 May 25;265(15):8610-7. [PubMed:2111322 ]
  46. Araki K, Sasaki J, Matsunaga A, Takada Y, Moriyama K, Hidaka K, Arakawa K: Characterization of two new human apolipoprotein A-I variants: apolipoprotein A-I Tsushima (Trp-108-->Arg) and A-I Hita (Ala-95-->Asp). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Oct 6;1214(3):272-8. [PubMed:7918609 ]
  47. Huang W, Sasaki J, Matsunaga A, Nanimatsu H, Moriyama K, Han H, Kugi M, Koga T, Yamaguchi K, Arakawa K: A novel homozygous missense mutation in the apo A-I gene with apo A-I deficiency. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998 Mar;18(3):389-96. [PubMed:9514407 ]