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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01699
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7037
Name Exostosin-1
Synonyms
  1. Glucuronosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan/N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-alpha-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
  2. Multiple exostoses protein 1
  3. Putative tumor suppressor protein EXT1
Gene Name EXT1
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific Function Glycosyltransferase required for the biosynthesis of heparan-sulfate. The EXT1/EXT2 complex possesses substantially higher glycosyltransferase activity than EXT1 or EXT2 alone. Appears to be a tumor suppressor.
Pathways
  • Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - heparan sulfate / heparin
  • protein glycosylation
Reactions
Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl-proteoglycan → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl-proteoglycan details
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan details
UDP-D-glucuronate + → UDP + details
+ UDP-D-glucuronate → + UDP details
+ UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine → + UDP details
GO Classification
Biological Process
gastrulation
signal transduction
glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic process
protein glycosylation
heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process, polysaccharide chain biosynthetic process
skeletal system development
axon guidance
embryonic skeletal joint development
endoderm development
mesoderm development
olfactory bulb development
ossification
Cellular Component
integral to endoplasmic reticulum membrane
Golgi membrane
Component
membrane
cell part
membrane part
intrinsic to membrane
intrinsic to organelle membrane
intrinsic to endoplasmic reticulum membrane
Function
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Molecular Function
glucuronosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-alpha-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
heparan sulfate N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-beta-glucuronosyltransferase activity
protein homodimerization activity
Cellular Location
  1. Golgi apparatus membrane
  2. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane
  3. Single-pass type II membrane protein
  4. Single-pass type II membrane protein
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 8
Locus 8q24.11
SNPs EXT1
Gene Sequence
>2241 bp
ATGCAGGCCAAAAAACGCTATTTCATCCTGCTCTCAGCTGGCTCTTGTCTCGCCCTTTTG
TTTTATTTCGGAGGCTTGCAGTTTAGGGCATCGAGGAGCCACAGCCGGAGAGAAGAACAC
AGCGGTAGGAATGGCTTGCACCACCCCAGTCCGGATCATTTCTGGCCCCGCTTCCCGGAG
CCTCTGCGCCCCTTCGTTCCTTGGGATCAATTGGAAAACGAGGATTCCAGCGTGCACATT
TCCCCCCGGCAGAAGCGAGATGCCAACTCCAGCATCTACAAAGGCAAGAAGTGCCGCATG
GAGTCCTGCTTCGATTTCACCCTTTGCAAGAAAAACGGCTTCAAAGTCTACGTATACCCA
CAGCAAAAAGGGGAGAAAATCGCCGAAAGTTACCAAAACATTCTAGCGGCCATCGAGGGC
TCCAGGTTCTACACCTCGGACCCCAGCCAGGCGTGCCTCTTTGTCCTGAGTCTGGATACT
TTAGACAGAGACCAGTTGTCACCTCAGTATGTGCACAATTTGAGATCCAAAGTGCAGAGT
CTCCACTTGTGGAACAATGGTAGGAATCATTTAATTTTTAATTTATATTCCGGCACTTGG
CCTGACTACACCGAGGACGTGGGGTTTGACATCGGCCAGGCGATGCTGGCCAAAGCCAGC
ATCAGTACTGAAAACTTCCGACCCAACTTTGATGTTTCTATTCCCCTCTTTTCTAAGGAT
CATCCCAGGACAGGAGGGGAGAGGGGGTTTTTGAAGTTCAACACCATCCCTCCTCTCAGG
AAGTACATGCTGGTATTCAAGGGGAAGAGGTACCTGACAGGGATAGGATCAGACACCAGG
AATGCCTTATATCACGTCCATAACGGGGAGGACGTTGTGCTCCTCACCACCTGCAAGCAT
GGCAAAGACTGGCAAAAGCACAAGGATTCTCGCTGTGACAGAGACAACACCGAGTATGAG
AAGTATGATTATCGGGAAATGCTGCACAATGCCACTTTCTGTCTGGTTCCTCGTGGTCGC
AGGCTTGGGTCCTTCAGATTCCTGGAGGCTTTGCAGGCTGCCTGCGTCCCTGTGATGCTC
AGCAATGGATGGGAGTTGCCATTCTCTGAAGTGATTAATTGGAACCAAGCTGCCGTCATA
GGCGATGAGAGATTGTTATTACAGATTCCTTCTACAATCAGGTCTATTCATCAGGATAAA
ATCCTAGCACTTAGACAGCAGACACAATTCTTGTGGGAGGCTTATTTTTCTTCAGTTGAG
AAGATTGTATTAACTACACTAGAGATTATTCAGGACAGAATATTCAAGCACATATCACGT
AACAGTTTAATATGGAACAAACATCCTGGAGGATTGTTCGTACTACCACAGTATTCATCT
TATCTGGGAGATTTTCCTTACTACTATGCTAATTTAGGTTTAAAGCCCCCCTCCAAATTC
ACTGCAGTCATCCATGCGGTGACCCCCCTGGTCTCTCAGTCCCAGCCAGTGTTGAAGCTT
CTCGTGGCTGCAGCCAAGTCCCAGTACTGTGCCCAGATCATAGTTCTATGGAATTGTGAC
AAGCCCCTACCAGCCAAACACCGCTGGCCTGCCACTGCTGTGCCTGTCGTCGTCATTGAA
GGAGAGAGCAAGGTTATGAGCAGCCGTTTTCTGCCCTACGACAACATCATCACAGACGCC
GTGCTCAGCCTTGACGAGGACACGGTGCTTTCAACAACAGAGGTGGATTTCGCCTTCACA
GTGTGGCAGAGCTTCCCTGAGAGGATTGTGGGGTACCCCGCGCGCAGCCACTTCTGGGAT
AACTCTAAGGAGCGGTGGGGATACACATCAAAGTGGACGAACGACTACTCCATGGTGTTG
ACAGGAGCTGCTATTTACCACAAATATTATCACTACCTATACTCCCATTACCTGCCAGCC
AGCCTGAAGAACATGGTGGACCAATTGGCCAATTGTGAGGACATTCTCATGAACTTCCTG
GTGTCTGCTGTGACAAAATTGCCTCCAATCAAAGTGACCCAGAAGAAGCAGTATAAGGAG
ACAATGATGGGACAGACTTCTCGGGCTTCCCGTTGGGCTGACCCTGACCACTTTGCCCAG
CGACAGAGCTGCATGAATACGTTTGCCAGCTGGTTTGGCTACATGCCGCTGATCCACTCT
CAGATGAGGCTCGACCCCGTCCTCTTTAAAGACCAGGTCTCTATTTTGAGGAAGAAATAC
CGAGACATTGAGCGACTTTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 746
Molecular Weight 86254.015
Theoretical pI 9.036
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Exostosin-1
MQAKKRYFILLSAGSCLALLFYFGGLQFRASRSHSRREEHSGRNGLHHPSPDHFWPRFPD
ALRPFVPWDQLENEDSSVHISPRQKRDANSSIYKGKKCRMESCFDFTLCKKNGFKVYVYP
QQKGEKIAESYQNILAAIEGSRFYTSDPSQACLFVLSLDTLDRDQLSPQYVHNLRSKVQS
LHLWNNGRNHLIFNLYSGTWPDYTEDVGFDIGQAMLAKASISTENFRPNFDVSIPLFSKD
HPRTGGERGFLKFNTIPPLRKYMLVFKGKRYLTGIGSDTRNALYHVHNGEDVVLLTTCKH
GKDWQKHKDSRCDRDNTEYEKYDYREMLHNATFCLVPRGRRLGSFRFLEALQAACVPVML
SNGWELPFSEVINWNQAAVIGDERLLLQIPSTIRSIHQDKILALRQQTQFLWEAYFSSVE
KIVLTTLEIIQDRIFKHISRNSLIWNKHPGGLFVLPQYSSYLGDFPYYYANLGLKPPSKF
TAVIHAVTPLVSQSQPVLKLLVAAAKSQYCAQIIVLWNCDKPLPAKHRWPATAVPVVVIE
GESKVMSSRFLPYDNIITDAVLSLDEDTVLSTTEVDFAFTVWQSFPERIVGYPARSHFWD
NSKERWGYTSKWTNDYSMVLTGAAIYHKYYHYLYSHYLPASLKNMVDQLANCEDILMNFL
VSAVTKLPPIKVTQKKQYKETMMGQTSRASRWADPDHFAQRQSCMNTFASWFGYMPLIHS
QMRLDPVLFKDQVSILRKKYRDIERL
GenBank ID Protein 1168162
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q16394
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name EXT1_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID S79639
GeneCard ID EXT1
GenAtlas ID EXT1
HGNC ID HGNC:3512
References
General References
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  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Ahn J, Ludecke HJ, Lindow S, Horton WA, Lee B, Wagner MJ, Horsthemke B, Wells DE: Cloning of the putative tumour suppressor gene for hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT1). Nat Genet. 1995 Oct;11(2):137-43. [PubMed:7550340 ]
  4. Ludecke HJ, Ahn J, Lin X, Hill A, Wagner MJ, Schomburg L, Horsthemke B, Wells DE: Genomic organization and promoter structure of the human EXT1 gene. Genomics. 1997 Mar 1;40(2):351-4. [PubMed:9119404 ]
  5. Kobayashi S, Morimoto K, Shimizu T, Takahashi M, Kurosawa H, Shirasawa T: Association of EXT1 and EXT2, hereditary multiple exostoses gene products, in Golgi apparatus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Feb 24;268(3):860-7. [PubMed:10679296 ]
  6. Duncan G, McCormick C, Tufaro F: The link between heparan sulfate and hereditary bone disease: finding a function for the EXT family of putative tumor suppressor proteins. J Clin Invest. 2001 Aug;108(4):511-6. [PubMed:11518722 ]
  7. Wuyts W, Van Hul W: Molecular basis of multiple exostoses: mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes. Hum Mutat. 2000;15(3):220-7. [PubMed:10679937 ]
  8. Hecht JT, Hogue D, Wang Y, Blanton SH, Wagner M, Strong LC, Raskind W, Hansen MF, Wells D: Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT): mutational studies of familial EXT1 cases and EXT-associated malignancies. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 Jan;60(1):80-6. [PubMed:8981950 ]
  9. Philippe C, Porter DE, Emerton ME, Wells DE, Simpson AH, Monaco AP: Mutation screening of the EXT1 and EXT2 genes in patients with hereditary multiple exostoses. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 Sep;61(3):520-8. [PubMed:9326317 ]
  10. Wuyts W, Van Hul W, De Boulle K, Hendrickx J, Bakker E, Vanhoenacker F, Mollica F, Ludecke HJ, Sayli BS, Pazzaglia UE, Mortier G, Hamel B, Conrad EU, Matsushita M, Raskind WH, Willems PJ: Mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes in hereditary multiple exostoses. Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Feb;62(2):346-54. [PubMed:9463333 ]
  11. Raskind WH, Conrad EU 3rd, Matsushita M, Wijsman EM, Wells DE, Chapman N, Sandell LJ, Wagner M, Houck J: Evaluation of locus heterogeneity and EXT1 mutations in 34 families with hereditary multiple exostoses. Hum Mutat. 1998;11(3):231-9. [PubMed:9521425 ]
  12. Bovee JV, Cleton-Jansen AM, Wuyts W, Caethoven G, Taminiau AH, Bakker E, Van Hul W, Cornelisse CJ, Hogendoorn PC: EXT-mutation analysis and loss of heterozygosity in sporadic and hereditary osteochondromas and secondary chondrosarcomas. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Sep;65(3):689-98. [PubMed:10441575 ]
  13. Xu L, Xia J, Jiang H, Zhou J, Li H, Wang D, Pan Q, Long Z, Fan C, Deng HX: Mutation analysis of hereditary multiple exostoses in the Chinese. Hum Genet. 1999 Jul-Aug;105(1-2):45-50. [PubMed:10480354 ]
  14. Bernard MA, Hall CE, Hogue DA, Cole WG, Scott A, Snuggs MB, Clines GA, Ludecke HJ, Lovett M, Van Winkle WB, Hecht JT: Diminished levels of the putative tumor suppressor proteins EXT1 and EXT2 in exostosis chondrocytes. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2001 Feb;48(2):149-62. [PubMed:11169766 ]
  15. Cheung PK, McCormick C, Crawford BE, Esko JD, Tufaro F, Duncan G: Etiological point mutations in the hereditary multiple exostoses gene EXT1: a functional analysis of heparan sulfate polymerase activity. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Jul;69(1):55-66. Epub 2001 Jun 5. [PubMed:11391482 ]