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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01717
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7059
Name Beta-2-glycoprotein 1
Synonyms
  1. APC inhibitor
  2. Activated protein C-binding protein
  3. Anticardiolipin cofactor
  4. Apo-H
  5. Apolipoprotein H
  6. B2GPI
  7. Beta(2)GPI
  8. Beta-2-glycoprotein I
Gene Name APOH
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in eukaryotic cell surface binding
Specific Function Binds to various kinds of negatively charged substances such as heparin, phospholipids, and dextran sulfate. May prevent activation of the intrinsic blood coagulation cascade by binding to phospholipids on the surface of damaged cells
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification Not Available
Cellular Location
  1. Secreted
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Locus 17q23-qter
SNPs APOH
Gene Sequence
>1038 bp
ATGATTTCTCCAGTGCTCATCTTGTTCTCGAGTTTTCTCTGCCATGTTGCTATTGCAGGA
CGGACCTGTCCCAAGCCAGATGATTTACCATTTTCCACAGTGGTCCCGTTAAAAACATTC
TATGAGCCAGGAGAAGAGATTACGTATTCCTGCAAGCCGGGCTATGTGTCCCGAGGAGGG
ATGAGAAAGTTTATCTGCCCTCTCACAGGACTGTGGCCCATCAACACTCTGAAATGTACA
CCCAGAGTATGTCCTTTTGCTGGAATCTTAGAAAATGGAGCCGTACGCTATACGACTTTT
GAATATCCCAACACGATCAGTTTTTCTTGTAACACTGGGTTTTATCTGAATGGCGCTGAT
TCTGCCAAGTGCACTGAGGAAGGAAAATGGAGCCCGGAGCTTCCTGTCTGTGCTCCCATC
ATCTGCCCTCCACCATCCATACCTACGTTTGCAACACTTCGTGTTTATAAGCCATCAGCT
GGAAACAATTCCCTCTATCGGGACACAGCAGTTTTTGAATGTTTGCCACAACATGCGATG
TTTGGAAATGATACAATTACCTGCACGACACATGGAAATTGGACTAAATTACCAGAATGC
AGGGAAGTAAAATGCCCATTCCCATCAAGACCAGACAATGGATTTGTGAACTATCCTGCA
AAACCAACACTTTATTACAAGGATAAAGCCACATTTGGCTGCCATGATGGATATTCTCTG
GATGGCCCGGAAGAAATAGAATGTACCAAACTGGGAAACTGGTCTGCCATGCCAAGTTGT
AAAGCATCTTGTAAATTACCTGTGAAAAAAGCCACTGTGGTGTACCAAGGAGAGAGAGTA
AAGATTCAGGAAAAATTTAAGAATGGAATGCTACATGGTGATAAAGTTTCTTTCTTCTGC
AAAAATAAGGAAAAGAAGTGTAGCTATACAGAGGATGCTCAGTGTATAGATGGCACTATC
GAAGTCCCCAAATGCTTCAAGGAACACAGTTCTCTGGCTTTTTGGAAAACTGATGCATCC
GATGTAAAGCCATGCTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 345
Molecular Weight 38297.8
Theoretical pI 8.03
Pfam Domain Function
Signals
  • 1-19
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
>Beta-2-glycoprotein 1
MISPVLILFSSFLCHVAIAGRTCPKPDDLPFSTVVPLKTFYEPGEEITYSCKPGYVSRGG
MRKFICPLTGLWPINTLKCTPRVCPFAGILENGAVRYTTFEYPNTISFSCNTGFYLNGAD
SAKCTEEGKWSPELPVCAPIICPPPSIPTFATLRVYKPSAGNNSLYRDTAVFECLPQHAM
FGNDTITCTTHGNWTKLPECREVKCPFPSRPDNGFVNYPAKPTLYYKDKATFGCHDGYSL
DGPEEIECTKLGNWSAMPSCKASCKVPVKKATVVYQGERVKIQEKFKNGMLHGDKVSFFC
KNKEKKCSYTEDAQCIDGTIEVPKCFKEHSSLAFWKTDASDVKPC
GenBank ID Protein 28810
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P02749
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name APOH_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID X58100
GeneCard ID APOH
GenAtlas ID APOH
HGNC ID HGNC:616
References
General References
  1. Chen R, Jiang X, Sun D, Han G, Wang F, Ye M, Wang L, Zou H: Glycoproteomics analysis of human liver tissue by combination of multiple enzyme digestion and hydrazide chemistry. J Proteome Res. 2009 Feb;8(2):651-61. doi: 10.1021/pr8008012. [PubMed:19159218 ]
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  4. Liu T, Qian WJ, Gritsenko MA, Camp DG 2nd, Monroe ME, Moore RJ, Smith RD: Human plasma N-glycoproteome analysis by immunoaffinity subtraction, hydrazide chemistry, and mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2005 Nov-Dec;4(6):2070-80. [PubMed:16335952 ]
  5. Bunkenborg J, Pilch BJ, Podtelejnikov AV, Wisniewski JR: Screening for N-glycosylated proteins by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Proteomics. 2004 Feb;4(2):454-65. [PubMed:14760718 ]
  6. Ramachandran P, Boontheung P, Xie Y, Sondej M, Wong DT, Loo JA: Identification of N-linked glycoproteins in human saliva by glycoprotein capture and mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2006 Jun;5(6):1493-503. [PubMed:16740002 ]
  7. Kristiansen TZ, Bunkenborg J, Gronborg M, Molina H, Thuluvath PJ, Argani P, Goggins MG, Maitra A, Pandey A: A proteomic analysis of human bile. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2004 Jul;3(7):715-28. Epub 2004 Apr 14. [PubMed:15084671 ]
  8. Nilsson J, Ruetschi U, Halim A, Hesse C, Carlsohn E, Brinkmalm G, Larson G: Enrichment of glycopeptides for glycan structure and attachment site identification. Nat Methods. 2009 Nov;6(11):809-11. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.1392. Epub 2009 Oct 18. [PubMed:19838169 ]
  9. Steinkasserer A, Estaller C, Weiss EH, Sim RB, Day AJ: Complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of human beta 2-glycoprotein I. Biochem J. 1991 Jul 15;277 ( Pt 2):387-91. [PubMed:1650181 ]
  10. Kristensen T, Schousboe I, Boel E, Mulvihill EM, Hansen RR, Moller KB, Moller NP, Sottrup-Jensen L: Molecular cloning and mammalian expression of human beta 2-glycoprotein I cDNA. FEBS Lett. 1991 Sep 9;289(2):183-6. [PubMed:1655523 ]
  11. Mehdi H, Nunn M, Steel DM, Whitehead AS, Perez M, Walker L, Peeples ME: Nucleotide sequence and expression of the human gene encoding apolipoprotein H (beta 2-glycoprotein I). Gene. 1991 Dec 15;108(2):293-8. [PubMed:1748314 ]
  12. Day JR, O'Hara PJ, Grant FJ, Lofton-Day C, Berkaw MN, Werner P, Arnaud P: Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding human apolipoprotein H (beta 2-glycoprotein I). Int J Clin Lab Res. 1992;21(3):256-63. [PubMed:1339416 ]
  13. Matsuura E, Igarashi M, Igarashi Y, Nagae H, Ichikawa K, Yasuda T, Koike T: Molecular definition of human beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2-GPI) by cDNA cloning and inter-species differences of beta 2-GPI in alternation of anticardiolipin binding. Int Immunol. 1991 Dec;3(12):1217-21. [PubMed:1777418 ]
  14. Okkels H, Rasmussen TE, Sanghera DK, Kamboh MI, Kristensen T: Structure of the human beta2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H) gene. Eur J Biochem. 1999 Jan;259(1-2):435-40. [PubMed:9914524 ]
  15. Lozier J, Takahashi N, Putnam FW: Complete amino acid sequence of human plasma beta 2-glycoprotein I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jun;81(12):3640-4. [PubMed:6587378 ]
  16. Matsuura E, Igarashi Y, Fujimoto M, Ichikawa K, Suzuki T, Sumida T, Yasuda T, Koike T: Heterogeneity of anticardiolipin antibodies defined by the anticardiolipin cofactor. J Immunol. 1992 Jun 15;148(12):3885-91. [PubMed:1602135 ]
  17. McNeil HP, Simpson RJ, Chesterman CN, Krilis SA: Anti-phospholipid antibodies are directed against a complex antigen that includes a lipid-binding inhibitor of coagulation: beta 2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jun;87(11):4120-4. [PubMed:2349221 ]
  18. Aleporou-Marinou V, Pappa H, Yalouris P, Patargias T: Purification of apolipoprotein H (beta 2-glycoprotein I)-like protein from human follicular fluid. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2001 Mar;128(3):537-42. [PubMed:11250549 ]
  19. Steinkasserer A, Barlow PN, Willis AC, Kertesz Z, Campbell ID, Sim RB, Norman DG: Activity, disulphide mapping and structural modelling of the fifth domain of human beta 2-glycoprotein I. FEBS Lett. 1992 Nov 23;313(2):193-7. [PubMed:1426288 ]
  20. Gambino R, Ruiu G, Pagano G, Cassader M: Qualitative analysis of the carbohydrate composition of apolipoprotein H. J Protein Chem. 1997 Apr;16(3):205-12. [PubMed:9155091 ]
  21. Bouma B, de Groot PG, van den Elsen JM, Ravelli RB, Schouten A, Simmelink MJ, Derksen RH, Kroon J, Gros P: Adhesion mechanism of human beta(2)-glycoprotein I to phospholipids based on its crystal structure. EMBO J. 1999 Oct 1;18(19):5166-74. [PubMed:10508150 ]
  22. Schwarzenbacher R, Zeth K, Diederichs K, Gries A, Kostner GM, Laggner P, Prassl R: Crystal structure of human beta2-glycoprotein I: implications for phospholipid binding and the antiphospholipid syndrome. EMBO J. 1999 Nov 15;18(22):6228-39. [PubMed:10562535 ]
  23. Steinkasserer A, Dorner C, Wurzner R, Sim RB: Human beta 2-glycoprotein I: molecular analysis of DNA and amino acid polymorphism. Hum Genet. 1993 May;91(4):401-2. [PubMed:8099061 ]
  24. Sanghera DK, Kristensen T, Hamman RF, Kamboh MI: Molecular basis of the apolipoprotein H (beta 2-glycoprotein I) protein polymorphism. Hum Genet. 1997 Jul;100(1):57-62. [PubMed:9225969 ]
  25. Sanghera DK, Wagenknecht DR, McIntyre JA, Kamboh MI: Identification of structural mutations in the fifth domain of apolipoprotein H (beta 2-glycoprotein I) which affect phospholipid binding. Hum Mol Genet. 1997 Feb;6(2):311-6. [PubMed:9063752 ]