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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01781
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7134
Name Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha isoforms short
Synonyms
  1. Adenylate cyclase-stimulating G alpha protein
Gene Name GNAS
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in signal transducer activity
Specific Function Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. The G(s) protein is involved in hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase:it activates the cyclase in response to beta-adrenergic stimuli
Pathways
  • Corticotropin Activation of Cortisol Production
  • Dopamine Activation of Neurological Reward System
  • Excitatory Neural Signalling Through 5-HTR 4 and Serotonin
  • Excitatory Neural Signalling Through 5-HTR 6 and Serotonin
  • Excitatory Neural Signalling Through 5-HTR 7 and Serotonin
  • Intracellular Signalling Through Adenosine Receptor A2a and Adenosine
  • Intracellular Signalling Through Adenosine Receptor A2b and Adenosine
  • Intracellular Signalling Through FSH Receptor and Follicle Stimulating Hormone
  • Intracellular Signalling Through Histamine H2 Receptor and Histamine
  • Intracellular Signalling Through LHCGR Receptor and Luteinizing Hormone/Choriogonadotropin
  • Intracellular Signalling Through PGD2 receptor and Prostaglandin D2
  • Intracellular Signalling Through Prostacyclin Receptor and Prostacyclin
  • Vasopressin Regulation of Water Homeostasis
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Function
purine nucleotide binding
binding
nucleotide binding
guanyl nucleotide binding
guanyl ribonucleotide binding
gtp binding
molecular transducer activity
signal transducer activity
Process
biological regulation
regulation of biological process
regulation of cellular process
signal transduction
signaling
signaling pathway
cell surface receptor linked signaling pathway
g-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:2
Locus 20q13.3
SNPs GNAS
Gene Sequence
>1185 bp
ATGGGCTGCCTCGGGAACAGTAAGACCGAGGACCAGCGCAACGAGGAGAAGGCGCAGCGT
GAGGCCAACAAAAAGATCGAGAAGCAGCTGCAGAAGGACAAGCAGGTCTACCGGGCCACG
CACCGCCTGCTGCTGCTGGGTGCTGGAGAATCTGGTAAAAGCACCATTGTGAAGCAGATG
AGGATCCTGCATGTTAATGGGTTTAATGGAGAGGGCGGCGAAGAGGACCCGCAGGCTGCA
AGGAGCAACAGCGATGGTGAGAAGGCAACCAAAGTGCAGGACATCAAAAACAACCTGAAA
GAGGCGATTGAAACCATTGTGGCCGCCATGAGCAACCTGGTGCCCCCCGTGGAGCTGGCC
AACCCCGAGAACCAGTTCAGAGTGGACTACATCCTGAGTGTGATGAACGTGCCTGACTTT
GACTTCCCTCCCGAATTCTATGAGCATGCCAAGGCTCTGTGGGAGGATGAAGGAGTGCGT
GCCTGCTACGAACGCTCCAACGAGTACCAGCTGATTGACTGTGCCCAGTACTTCCTGGAC
AAGATCGACGTGATCAAGCAGGCTGACTATGTGCCGAGCGATCAGGACCTGCTTCGCTGC
CGTGTCCTGACTTCTGGAATCTTTGAGACCAAGTTCCAGGTGGACAAAGTCAACTTCCAC
ATGTTTGACGTGGGTGGCCAGCGCGATGAACGCCGCAAGTGGATCCAGTGCTTCAACGAT
GTGACTGCCATCATCTTCGTGGTGGCCAGCAGCAGCTACAACATGGTCATCCGGGAGGAC
AACCAGACCAACCGCCTGCAGGAGGCTCTGAACCTCTTCAAGAGCATCTGGAACAACAGA
TGGCTGCGCACCATCTCTGTGATCCTGTTCCTCAACAAGCAAGATCTGCTCGCTGAGAAA
GTCCTTGCTGGGAAATCGAAGATTGAGGACTACTTTCCAGAATTTGCTCGCTACACTACT
CCTGAGGATGCTACTCCCGAGCCCGGAGAGGACCCACGCGTGACCCGGGCCAAGTACTTC
ATTCGAGATGAGTTTCTGAGGATCAGCACTGCCAGTGGAGATGGGCGTCACTACTGCTAC
CCTCATTTCACCTGCGCTGTGGACACTGAGAACATCCGCCGTGTGTTCAACGACTGCCGT
GACATCATTCAGCGCATGCACCTTCGTCAGTACGAGCTGCTCTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 394
Molecular Weight 45664.2
Theoretical pI 5.56
Pfam Domain Function
Signals
  • None
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
>Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha isoforms short
MGCLGNSKTEDQRNEEKAQREANKKIEKQLQKDKQVYRATHRLLLLGAGESGKSTIVKQM
RILHVNGFNGEGGEEDPQAARSNSDGEKATKVQDIKNNLKEAIETIVAAMSNLVPPVELA
NPENQFRVDYILSVMNVPDFDFPPEFYEHAKALWEDEGVRACYERSNEYQLIDCAQYFLD
KIDVIKQADYVPSDQDLLRCRVLTSGIFETKFQVDKVNFHMFDVGGQRDERRKWIQCFND
VTAIIFVVASSSYNMVIREDNQTNRLQEALNLFKSIWNNRWLRTISVILFLNKQDLLAEK
VLAGKSKIEDYFPEFARYTTPEDATPEPGEDPRVTRAKYFIRDEFLRISTASGDGRHYCY
PHFTCAVDTENIRRVFNDCRDIIQRMHLRQYELL
GenBank ID Protein 31915
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P63092
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name GNAS2_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID X04408
GeneCard ID GNAS
GenAtlas ID GNAS
HGNC ID HGNC:4392
References
General References
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  4. Meierhofer D, Wang X, Huang L, Kaiser P: Quantitative analysis of global ubiquitination in HeLa cells by mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2008 Oct;7(10):4566-76. doi: 10.1021/pr800468j. Epub 2008 Sep 10. [PubMed:18781797 ]
  5. Mattera R, Codina J, Crozat A, Kidd V, Woo SL, Birnbaumer L: Identification by molecular cloning of two forms of the alpha-subunit of the human liver stimulatory (GS) regulatory component of adenylyl cyclase. FEBS Lett. 1986 Sep 29;206(1):36-42. [PubMed:3093273 ]
  6. Harris BA: Complete cDNA sequence of a human stimulatory GTP-binding protein alpha subunit. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Apr 25;16(8):3585. [PubMed:3131741 ]
  7. Kozasa T, Itoh H, Tsukamoto T, Kaziro Y: Isolation and characterization of the human Gs alpha gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Apr;85(7):2081-5. [PubMed:3127824 ]
  8. Bray P, Carter A, Simons C, Guo V, Puckett C, Kamholz J, Spiegel A, Nirenberg M: Human cDNA clones for four species of G alpha s signal transduction protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Dec;83(23):8893-7. [PubMed:3024154 ]
  9. Miric A, Vechio JD, Levine MA: Heterogeneous mutations in the gene encoding the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein of adenylyl cyclase in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Jun;76(6):1560-8. [PubMed:8388883 ]
  10. Schwindinger WF, Francomano CA, Levine MA: Identification of a mutation in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein of adenylyl cyclase in McCune-Albright syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jun 1;89(11):5152-6. [PubMed:1594625 ]
  11. Weinstein LS, Shenker A, Gejman PV, Merino MJ, Friedman E, Spiegel AM: Activating mutations of the stimulatory G protein in the McCune-Albright syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1991 Dec 12;325(24):1688-95. [PubMed:1944469 ]
  12. Landis CA, Masters SB, Spada A, Pace AM, Bourne HR, Vallar L: GTPase inhibiting mutations activate the alpha chain of Gs and stimulate adenylyl cyclase in human pituitary tumours. Nature. 1989 Aug 31;340(6236):692-6. [PubMed:2549426 ]
  13. Schwindinger WF, Miric A, Zimmerman D, Levine MA: A novel Gs alpha mutant in a patient with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy uncouples cell surface receptors from adenylyl cyclase. J Biol Chem. 1994 Oct 14;269(41):25387-91. [PubMed:7523385 ]
  14. Iiri T, Herzmark P, Nakamoto JM, van Dop C, Bourne HR: Rapid GDP release from Gs alpha in patients with gain and loss of endocrine function. Nature. 1994 Sep 8;371(6493):164-8. [PubMed:8072545 ]
  15. Gorelov VN, Dumon K, Barteneva NS, Palm D, Roher HD, Goretzki PE: Overexpression of Gs alpha subunit in thyroid tumors bearing a mutated Gs alpha gene. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1995;121(4):219-24. [PubMed:7751320 ]
  16. Williamson EA, Ince PG, Harrison D, Kendall-Taylor P, Harris PE: G-protein mutations in human pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone-secreting adenomas. Eur J Clin Invest. 1995 Feb;25(2):128-31. [PubMed:7737262 ]
  17. Yang I, Park S, Ryu M, Woo J, Kim S, Kim J, Kim Y, Choi Y: Characteristics of gsp-positive growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumors in Korean acromegalic patients. Eur J Endocrinol. 1996 Jun;134(6):720-6. [PubMed:8766942 ]
  18. Farfel Z, Iiri T, Shapira H, Roitman A, Mouallem M, Bourne HR: Pseudohypoparathyroidism, a novel mutation in the betagamma-contact region of Gsalpha impairs receptor stimulation. J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 16;271(33):19653-5. [PubMed:8702665 ]
  19. Candeliere GA, Roughley PJ, Glorieux FH: Polymerase chain reaction-based technique for the selective enrichment and analysis of mosaic arg201 mutations in G alpha s from patients with fibrous dysplasia of bone. Bone. 1997 Aug;21(2):201-6. [PubMed:9267696 ]
  20. Warner DR, Gejman PV, Collins RM, Weinstein LS: A novel mutation adjacent to the switch III domain of G(S alpha) in a patient with pseudohypoparathyroidism. Mol Endocrinol. 1997 Oct;11(11):1718-27. [PubMed:9328353 ]
  21. Iiri T, Farfel Z, Bourne HR: Conditional activation defect of a human Gsalpha mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 May 27;94(11):5656-61. [PubMed:9159128 ]
  22. Warner DR, Weng G, Yu S, Matalon R, Weinstein LS: A novel mutation in the switch 3 region of Gsalpha in a patient with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy impairs GDP binding and receptor activation. J Biol Chem. 1998 Sep 11;273(37):23976-83. [PubMed:9727013 ]
  23. Riminucci M, Fisher LW, Majolagbe A, Corsi A, Lala R, De Sanctis C, Robey PG, Bianco P: A novel GNAS1 mutation, R201G, in McCune-albright syndrome. J Bone Miner Res. 1999 Nov;14(11):1987-9. [PubMed:10571700 ]
  24. Warner DR, Weinstein LS: A mutation in the heterotrimeric stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha-subunit with impaired receptor-mediated activation because of elevated GTPase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Apr 13;96(8):4268-72. [PubMed:10200251 ]
  25. Liu J, Litman D, Rosenberg MJ, Yu S, Biesecker LG, Weinstein LS: A GNAS1 imprinting defect in pseudohypoparathyroidism type IB. J Clin Invest. 2000 Nov;106(9):1167-74. [PubMed:11067869 ]
  26. Bastepe M, Lane AH, Juppner H: Paternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 20q--and the resulting changes in GNAS1 methylation--as a plausible cause of pseudohypoparathyroidism. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 May;68(5):1283-9. Epub 2001 Apr 9. [PubMed:11294659 ]
  27. Wu WI, Schwindinger WF, Aparicio LF, Levine MA: Selective resistance to parathyroid hormone caused by a novel uncoupling mutation in the carboxyl terminus of G alpha(s). A cause of pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jan 5;276(1):165-71. [PubMed:11029463 ]
  28. Ishikawa Y, Tajima T, Nakae J, Nagashima T, Satoh K, Okuhara K, Fujieda K: Two mutations of the Gsalpha gene in two Japanese patients with sporadic pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia. J Hum Genet. 2001;46(7):426-30. [PubMed:11450852 ]
  29. Ahrens W, Hiort O, Staedt P, Kirschner T, Marschke C, Kruse K: Analysis of the GNAS1 gene in Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Oct;86(10):4630-4. [PubMed:11600516 ]
  30. Linglart A, Carel JC, Garabedian M, Le T, Mallet E, Kottler ML: GNAS1 lesions in pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia and Ic: genotype phenotype relationship and evidence of the maternal transmission of the hormonal resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jan;87(1):189-97. [PubMed:11788646 ]
  31. Lim SH, Poh LK, Cowell CT, Tey BH, Loke KY: Mutational analysis of the GNAS1 exons encoding the stimulatory G protein in five patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Mar;15(3):259-68. [PubMed:11926205 ]
  32. Jan de Beur S, Ding C, Germain-Lee E, Cho J, Maret A, Levine MA: Discordance between genetic and epigenetic defects in pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1b revealed by inconsistent loss of maternal imprinting at GNAS1. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Aug;73(2):314-22. Epub 2003 Jul 11. [PubMed:12858292 ]
  33. Rickard SJ, Wilson LC: Analysis of GNAS1 and overlapping transcripts identifies the parental origin of mutations in patients with sporadic Albright hereditary osteodystrophy and reveals a model system in which to observe the effects of splicing mutations on translated and untranslated messenger RNA. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Apr;72(4):961-74. Epub 2003 Mar 6. [PubMed:12624854 ]
  34. Pohlenz J, Ahrens W, Hiort O: A new heterozygous mutation (L338N) in the human Gsalpha (GNAS1) gene as a cause for congenital hypothyroidism in Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2003 Apr;148(4):463-8. [PubMed:12656668 ]
  35. Fragoso MC, Domenice S, Latronico AC, Martin RM, Pereira MA, Zerbini MC, Lucon AM, Mendonca BB: Cushing's syndrome secondary to adrenocorticotropin-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia due to activating mutations of GNAS1 gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 May;88(5):2147-51. [PubMed:12727968 ]
  36. Bastepe M, Frohlich LF, Hendy GN, Indridason OS, Josse RG, Koshiyama H, Korkko J, Nakamoto JM, Rosenbloom AL, Slyper AH, Sugimoto T, Tsatsoulis A, Crawford JD, Juppner H: Autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib is associated with a heterozygous microdeletion that likely disrupts a putative imprinting control element of GNAS. J Clin Invest. 2003 Oct;112(8):1255-63. [PubMed:14561710 ]
  37. Chan I, Hamada T, Hardman C, McGrath JA, Child FJ: Progressive osseous heteroplasia resulting from a new mutation in the GNAS1 gene. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2004 Jan;29(1):77-80. [PubMed:14723729 ]
  38. Linglart A, Gensure RC, Olney RC, Juppner H, Bastepe M: A novel STX16 deletion in autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib redefines the boundaries of a cis-acting imprinting control element of GNAS. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 May;76(5):804-14. Epub 2005 Mar 30. [PubMed:15800843 ]
  39. Riepe FG, Ahrens W, Krone N, Folster-Holst R, Brasch J, Sippell WG, Hiort O, Partsch CJ: Early manifestation of calcinosis cutis in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia associated with a novel mutation in the GNAS gene. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005 Apr;152(4):515-9. [PubMed:15817905 ]
  40. Bastepe M, Frohlich LF, Linglart A, Abu-Zahra HS, Tojo K, Ward LM, Juppner H: Deletion of the NESP55 differentially methylated region causes loss of maternal GNAS imprints and pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib. Nat Genet. 2005 Jan;37(1):25-7. Epub 2004 Dec 12. [PubMed:15592469 ]