Hmdb loader
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01814
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7174
Name Angiogenin
  1. RNase 5
  2. Ribonuclease 5
Gene Name ANG
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in nucleic acid binding
Specific Function May function as a tRNA-specific ribonuclease that binds to actin on the surface of endothelial cells; once bound, angiogenin is endocytosed and translocated to the nucleus, thereby promoting the endothelial invasiveness necessary for blood vessel formation. Angiogenin induces vascularization of normal and malignant tissues. Abolishes protein synthesis by specifically hydrolyzing cellular tRNAs
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
nucleic acid binding
nuclease activity
endonuclease activity
endoribonuclease activity
endoribonuclease activity, producing 3'-phosphomonoesters
pancreatic ribonuclease activity
Cellular Location
  1. Secreted
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Locus 14q11.1-q11.2
Gene Sequence
>444 bp
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 147
Molecular Weight 16549.9
Theoretical pI 10.09
Pfam Domain Function
  • 1-24
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
GenBank ID Protein 33392770
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P03950
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ANGI_HUMAN
GenBank Gene ID BC054880
GeneCard ID ANG
GenAtlas ID ANG
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Kurachi K, Davie EW, Strydom DJ, Riordan JF, Vallee BL: Sequence of the cDNA and gene for angiogenin, a human angiogenesis factor. Biochemistry. 1985 Sep 24;24(20):5494-9. [PubMed:2866795 ]
  3. Zhang J, Rosenberg HF: Diversifying selection of the tumor-growth promoter angiogenin in primate evolution. Mol Biol Evol. 2002 Apr;19(4):438-45. [PubMed:11919285 ]
  4. Strydom DJ, Fett JW, Lobb RR, Alderman EM, Bethune JL, Riordan JF, Vallee BL: Amino acid sequence of human tumor derived angiogenin. Biochemistry. 1985 Sep 24;24(20):5486-94. [PubMed:2866794 ]
  5. Weiner HL, Weiner LH, Swain JL: Tissue distribution and developmental expression of the messenger RNA encoding angiogenin. Science. 1987 Jul 17;237(4812):280-2. [PubMed:2440105 ]
  6. Saxena SK, Rybak SM, Davey RT Jr, Youle RJ, Ackerman EJ: Angiogenin is a cytotoxic, tRNA-specific ribonuclease in the RNase A superfamily. J Biol Chem. 1992 Oct 25;267(30):21982-6. [PubMed:1400510 ]
  7. Acharya KR, Shapiro R, Allen SC, Riordan JF, Vallee BL: Crystal structure of human angiogenin reveals the structural basis for its functional divergence from ribonuclease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 12;91(8):2915-9. [PubMed:8159679 ]
  8. Papageorgiou AC, Shapiro R, Acharya KR: Molecular recognition of human angiogenin by placental ribonuclease inhibitor--an X-ray crystallographic study at 2.0 A resolution. EMBO J. 1997 Sep 1;16(17):5162-77. [PubMed:9311977 ]
  9. Leonidas DD, Shapiro R, Allen SC, Subbarao GV, Veluraja K, Acharya KR: Refined crystal structures of native human angiogenin and two active site variants: implications for the unique functional properties of an enzyme involved in neovascularisation during tumour growth. J Mol Biol. 1999 Jan 22;285(3):1209-33. [PubMed:9918722 ]
  10. Leonidas DD, Chavali GB, Jardine AM, Li S, Shapiro R, Acharya KR: Binding of phosphate and pyrophosphate ions at the active site of human angiogenin as revealed by X-ray crystallography. Protein Sci. 2001 Aug;10(8):1669-76. [PubMed:11468363 ]
  11. Leonidas DD, Shapiro R, Subbarao GV, Russo A, Acharya KR: Crystallographic studies on the role of the C-terminal segment of human angiogenin in defining enzymatic potency. Biochemistry. 2002 Feb 26;41(8):2552-62. [PubMed:11851402 ]
  12. Chavali GB, Papageorgiou AC, Olson KA, Fett JW, Hu Gf, Shapiro R, Acharya KR: The crystal structure of human angiogenin in complex with an antitumor neutralizing antibody. Structure. 2003 Jul;11(7):875-85. [PubMed:12842050 ]
  13. Holloway DE, Chavali GB, Hares MC, Baker MD, Subbarao GV, Shapiro R, Acharya KR: Crystallographic studies on structural features that determine the enzymatic specificity and potency of human angiogenin: Thr44, Thr80, and residues 38-41. Biochemistry. 2004 Feb 10;43(5):1230-41. [PubMed:14756559 ]
  14. Lequin O, Thuring H, Robin M, Lallemand JY: Three-dimensional solution structure of human angiogenin determined by 1H,15N-NMR spectroscopy--characterization of histidine protonation states and pKa values. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Dec 15;250(3):712-26. [PubMed:9461294 ]
  15. Greenway MJ, Alexander MD, Ennis S, Traynor BJ, Corr B, Frost E, Green A, Hardiman O: A novel candidate region for ALS on chromosome 14q11.2. Neurology. 2004 Nov 23;63(10):1936-8. [PubMed:15557516 ]
  16. Greenway MJ, Andersen PM, Russ C, Ennis S, Cashman S, Donaghy C, Patterson V, Swingler R, Kieran D, Prehn J, Morrison KE, Green A, Acharya KR, Brown RH Jr, Hardiman O: ANG mutations segregate with familial and 'sporadic' amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Genet. 2006 Apr;38(4):411-3. Epub 2006 Feb 26. [PubMed:16501576 ]
  17. Wu D, Yu W, Kishikawa H, Folkerth RD, Iafrate AJ, Shen Y, Xin W, Sims K, Hu GF: Angiogenin loss-of-function mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2007 Dec;62(6):609-17. [PubMed:17886298 ]
  18. Crabtree B, Thiyagarajan N, Prior SH, Wilson P, Iyer S, Ferns T, Shapiro R, Brew K, Subramanian V, Acharya KR: Characterization of human angiogenin variants implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biochemistry. 2007 Oct 23;46(42):11810-8. Epub 2007 Sep 27. [PubMed:17900154 ]
  19. Gellera C, Colombrita C, Ticozzi N, Castellotti B, Bragato C, Ratti A, Taroni F, Silani V: Identification of new ANG gene mutations in a large cohort of Italian patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurogenetics. 2008 Feb;9(1):33-40. Epub 2007 Dec 18. [PubMed:18087731 ]
  20. Conforti FL, Sprovieri T, Mazzei R, Ungaro C, La Bella V, Tessitore A, Patitucci A, Magariello A, Gabriele AL, Tedeschi G, Simone IL, Majorana G, Valentino P, Condino F, Bono F, Monsurro MR, Muglia M, Quattrone A: A novel Angiogenin gene mutation in a sporadic patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from southern Italy. Neuromuscul Disord. 2008 Jan;18(1):68-70. Epub 2007 Aug 20. [PubMed:17703939 ]