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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP02042
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7521
Name Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
Synonyms
  1. Proline oxidase
  2. Proline oxidase 2
  3. p53-induced gene 6 protein
Gene Name PRODH
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in proline dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function Converts proline to delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
Pathways
  • Arginine and Proline Metabolism
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)
  • Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency
  • Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)
  • Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)
  • Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]
  • Hyperprolinemia Type I
  • Hyperprolinemia Type II
  • L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency
  • L-proline degradation into L-glutamate
  • Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)
  • Prolidase Deficiency (PD)
  • Prolinemia Type II
Reactions
L-Proline + acceptor → 1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + reduced acceptor details
L-Proline + Acceptor → 1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + Reduced acceptor details
4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → L-4-Hydroxyglutamate semialdehyde + NAD + Water details
GO Classification
Biological Process
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to oxidative stress
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
4-hydroxyproline catabolic process
glutamate biosynthetic process
proline catabolic process
proline catabolic process to glutamate
Cellular Component
mitochondrial matrix
mitochondrial inner membrane
Function
proline dehydrogenase activity
catalytic activity
oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-nh group of donors
oxidoreductase activity
Molecular Function
proline dehydrogenase activity
FAD binding
Process
proline catabolic process
glutamate metabolic process
glutamate biosynthetic process
metabolic process
cellular metabolic process
glutamine family amino acid metabolic process
proline metabolic process
oxidation reduction
cellular amino acid and derivative metabolic process
cellular amino acid metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Mitochondrion matrix
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 22
Locus 22q11.21
SNPs PRODH
Gene Sequence
>1551 bp
ATGCTGGAATTTGTGATGAGAGAGTGGAAAAAATCCAGGAAACTTCTAGGACAGAGGCTA
TTCAACAAGCTCATGAAGATGACCTTCTATGGGCATTTTGTAGCCGGGGAGGACCAGGAG
TCCATCCAGCCCCTGCTTCGGCACTACAGGGCCTTCGGTGTCAGCGCCATCCTGGACTAT
GGAGTGGAGGAGGACCTGAGCCCCGAGGAGGCAGAGCACAAGGAGATGGAGTCCTGCTCC
TCGGCTGCGGAGAGGGATGGCAGTGGCACGAATAAGCGGGACAAGCAATACCAGGCCCAC
CGGGCTTTCGGGGACCGCAGGAATGGTGTCATCAGTGCCCGCACCTACTTCTACGCCAAT
GAGGCCAAGTGCGACAGCCACATGGAGACATTCTTGCGCTGCATCGAAGCCTCAGGTAGA
GTCAGCGATGACGGCTTCATAGCCATTAAGCTCACAGCACTGGGGAGACCCCAGTTTCTG
CTGCAGTTCTCAGAGGTGCTGGCCAAGTGGAGGTGCTTCTTTCACCAAATGGCTGTGGAG
CAAGGGCAGGCGGGCCTGGCTGCCATGGACACCAAGCTGGAGGTGGCGGTGCTGCAGGAA
AGTGTCGCAAAGTTGGGCATCGCATCCAGGGCTGAGATTGAGGACTGGTTCACGGCAGAG
ACCCTGGGAGTGTCTGGCACCATGGACCTGCTGGACTGGAGCAGCCTCATCGACAGCAGG
ACCAAGCTGTCCAAGCACCTGGTAGTCCCCAACGCACAGACAGGACAGCTGGAGCCCCTG
CTGTCCCGGTTCACTGAGGAGGAGGAGCTACAGATGACCAGGATGCTACAGCGGATGGAT
GTCCTGGCCAAGAAAGCCACAGAGATGGGCGTGCGGCTGATGGTGGATGCCGAGCAGACC
TACTTCCAGCCGGCCATCAGCCGCCTGACGCTGGAGATGCAGCGGAAGTTCAATGTGGAG
AAGCCGCTCATCTTCAACACATACCAGTGCTACCTCAAGGATGCCTATGACAATGTGACC
CTGGACGTGGAGCTGGCTCGCCGTGAGGGCTGGTGTTTTGGGGCCAAGCTGGTGCGGGGC
GCATACCTGGCCCAGGAGCGAGCCCGTGCGGCAGAGATCGGCTATGAGGACCCCATCAAC
CCCACGTACGAGGCCACCAACGCCATGTACCACAGGTGCCTGGACTACGTGTTGGAGGAG
CTGAAGCACAACGCCAAGGCCAAGGTGATGGTGGCCTCCCACAATGAGGACACAGTGCGC
TTCGCACTGCGCAGGATGGAGGAGCTGGGCCTGCATCCTGCTGACCACCAGGTGTACTTT
GGACAGCTGCTAGGCATGTGTGACCAGATCAGCTTCCCGCTGGGCCAGGCCGGCTACCCC
GTGTACAAGTACGTGCCCTATGGCCCCGTGATGGAGGTGCTGCCCTACTTGTCCCGCCGT
GCCCTGGAGAACAGCAGCCTCATGAAGGGCACCCATCGGGAGCGGCAGTTGCTGTGGCTG
GAGCTCTTGAGGCGGCTCCGAACTGGCAACCTCTTCCATCGCCCTGCCTAG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 516
Molecular Weight 56196.675
Theoretical pI 6.336
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Proline dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
MLEFVMREWKKSRKLLGQRLFNKLMKMTFYGHFVAGEDQESIQPLLRHYRAFGVSAILDY
GVEEDLSPEEAEHKEMESCTSAAERDGSGTNKRDKQYQAHRAFGDRRNGVISARTYFYAN
EAKCDSHMETFLRCIEASGRVSDDGFIAIKLTALGRPQFLLQFSEVLAKWRCFFHQMAVE
QGQAGLAAMDTKLEVAVLQESVAKLGIASRAEIEDWFTAETLGVSGTMDLLDWSSLIDSR
TKLSKHLVVPNAQTGQLEPLLSRFTEEEELQMTRMLQRMDVLAKKATEMGVRLMVDAEQT
YFQPAISRLTLEMQRKFNVEKPLIFNTYQCYLKDAYDNVTLDVELARREGWCFGAKLVRG
AYLAQERARAAEIGYEDPINPTYEATNAMYHRCLDYVLEELKHNAKAKVMVASHNEDTVR
FALRRMEELGLHPADHQVYFGQLLGMCDQISFPLGQAGYPVYKYVPYGPVMEVLPYLSRR
ALENSSLMKGTHRERQLLWLELLRRLRTGNLFHRPA
GenBank ID Protein 2677802
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID O43272
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PROD_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID U82381
GeneCard ID PRODH
GenAtlas ID PRODH
HGNC ID HGNC:9453
References
General References
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  2. Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, Chissoe S, Hunt AR, Collins JE, Bruskiewich R, Beare DM, Clamp M, Smink LJ, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Babbage A, Bagguley C, Bailey J, Barlow K, Bates KN, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bridgeman AM, Buck D, Burgess J, Burrill WD, O'Brien KP, et al.: The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. Nature. 1999 Dec 2;402(6761):489-95. [PubMed:10591208 ]
  3. Sjoblom T, Jones S, Wood LD, Parsons DW, Lin J, Barber TD, Mandelker D, Leary RJ, Ptak J, Silliman N, Szabo S, Buckhaults P, Farrell C, Meeh P, Markowitz SD, Willis J, Dawson D, Willson JK, Gazdar AF, Hartigan J, Wu L, Liu C, Parmigiani G, Park BH, Bachman KE, Papadopoulos N, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, Velculescu VE: The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science. 2006 Oct 13;314(5797):268-74. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16959974 ]
  4. Polyak K, Xia Y, Zweier JL, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B: A model for p53-induced apoptosis. Nature. 1997 Sep 18;389(6648):300-5. [PubMed:9305847 ]
  5. Campbell HD, Webb GC, Young IG: A human homologue of the Drosophila melanogaster sluggish-A (proline oxidase) gene maps to 22q11.2, and is a candidate gene for type-I hyperprolinaemia. Hum Genet. 1997 Nov;101(1):69-74. [PubMed:9385373 ]
  6. Gogos JA, Santha M, Takacs Z, Beck KD, Luine V, Lucas LR, Nadler JV, Karayiorgou M: The gene encoding proline dehydrogenase modulates sensorimotor gating in mice. Nat Genet. 1999 Apr;21(4):434-9. [PubMed:10192398 ]
  7. Bender HU, Almashanu S, Steel G, Hu CA, Lin WW, Willis A, Pulver A, Valle D: Functional consequences of PRODH missense mutations. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Mar;76(3):409-20. Epub 2005 Jan 20. [PubMed:15662599 ]
  8. Jacquet H, Raux G, Thibaut F, Hecketsweiler B, Houy E, Demilly C, Haouzir S, Allio G, Fouldrin G, Drouin V, Bou J, Petit M, Campion D, Frebourg T: PRODH mutations and hyperprolinemia in a subset of schizophrenic patients. Hum Mol Genet. 2002 Sep 15;11(19):2243-9. [PubMed:12217952 ]
  9. Liu H, Heath SC, Sobin C, Roos JL, Galke BL, Blundell ML, Lenane M, Robertson B, Wijsman EM, Rapoport JL, Gogos JA, Karayiorgou M: Genetic variation at the 22q11 PRODH2/DGCR6 locus presents an unusual pattern and increases susceptibility to schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Mar 19;99(6):3717-22. Epub 2002 Mar 12. [PubMed:11891283 ]
  10. Raux G, Bumsel E, Hecketsweiler B, van Amelsvoort T, Zinkstok J, Manouvrier-Hanu S, Fantini C, Breviere GM, Di Rosa G, Pustorino G, Vogels A, Swillen A, Legallic S, Bou J, Opolczynski G, Drouin-Garraud V, Lemarchand M, Philip N, Gerard-Desplanches A, Carlier M, Philippe A, Nolen MC, Heron D, Sarda P, Lacombe D, Coizet C, Alembik Y, Layet V, Afenjar A, Hannequin D, Demily C, Petit M, Thibaut F, Frebourg T, Campion D: Involvement of hyperprolinemia in cognitive and psychiatric features of the 22q11 deletion syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2007 Jan 1;16(1):83-91. Epub 2006 Nov 29. [PubMed:17135275 ]