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HMDB Protein ID HMDBP02070
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7551
Name Tumor necrosis factor
  1. Cachectin
  2. TNF-a
  3. TNF-alpha
  4. Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2
  5. Tumor necrosis factor, membrane form
  6. Tumor necrosis factor, soluble form
Gene Name TNF
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific Function Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation
  • Fc Epsilon Receptor I Signaling in Mast Cells
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
cell part
cytokine receptor binding
tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily binding
tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
protein binding
receptor binding
immune system process
immune response
Cellular Location
  1. Tumor necrosis factor
  2. soluble form:Secreted
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:6
Locus 6p21.3
Gene Sequence
>702 bp
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 233
Molecular Weight 25644.1
Theoretical pI 6.92
Pfam Domain Function
  • None
Transmembrane Regions
  • 36-56
Protein Sequence
>Tumor necrosis factor
GenBank ID Protein 37220
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P01375
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name TNFA_HUMAN
GenBank Gene ID X01394
GeneCard ID TNF
GenAtlas ID TNF
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Xie T, Rowen L, Aguado B, Ahearn ME, Madan A, Qin S, Campbell RD, Hood L: Analysis of the gene-dense major histocompatibility complex class III region and its comparison to mouse. Genome Res. 2003 Dec;13(12):2621-36. [PubMed:14656967 ]
  3. Neville MJ, Campbell RD: A new member of the Ig superfamily and a V-ATPase G subunit are among the predicted products of novel genes close to the TNF locus in the human MHC. J Immunol. 1999 Apr 15;162(8):4745-54. [PubMed:10202016 ]
  4. Nedospasov SA, Shakhov AN, Turetskaya RL, Mett VA, Azizov MM, Georgiev GP, Korobko VG, Dobrynin VN, Filippov SA, Bystrov NS, et al.: Tandem arrangement of genes coding for tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and lymphotoxin (TNF-beta) in the human genome. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1986;51 Pt 1:611-24. [PubMed:3555974 ]
  5. Pennica D, Nedwin GE, Hayflick JS, Seeburg PH, Derynck R, Palladino MA, Kohr WJ, Aggarwal BB, Goeddel DV: Human tumour necrosis factor: precursor structure, expression and homology to lymphotoxin. Nature. 1984 Dec 20-1985 Jan 2;312(5996):724-9. [PubMed:6392892 ]
  6. Shirai T, Yamaguchi H, Ito H, Todd CW, Wallace RB: Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene for human tumour necrosis factor. Nature. 1985 Feb 28-Mar 6;313(6005):803-6. [PubMed:3883195 ]
  7. Nedwin GE, Naylor SL, Sakaguchi AY, Smith D, Jarrett-Nedwin J, Pennica D, Goeddel DV, Gray PW: Human lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor genes: structure, homology and chromosomal localization. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Sep 11;13(17):6361-73. [PubMed:2995927 ]
  8. Wang AM, Creasey AA, Ladner MB, Lin LS, Strickler J, Van Arsdell JN, Yamamoto R, Mark DF: Molecular cloning of the complementary DNA for human tumor necrosis factor. Science. 1985 Apr 12;228(4696):149-54. [PubMed:3856324 ]
  9. Marmenout A, Fransen L, Tavernier J, Van der Heyden J, Tizard R, Kawashima E, Shaw A, Johnson MJ, Semon D, Muller R, et al.: Molecular cloning and expression of human tumor necrosis factor and comparison with mouse tumor necrosis factor. Eur J Biochem. 1985 Nov 4;152(3):515-22. [PubMed:3932069 ]
  10. Iris FJ, Bougueleret L, Prieur S, Caterina D, Primas G, Perrot V, Jurka J, Rodriguez-Tome P, Claverie JM, Dausset J, et al.: Dense Alu clustering and a potential new member of the NF kappa B family within a 90 kilobase HLA class III segment. Nat Genet. 1993 Feb;3(2):137-45. [PubMed:8499947 ]
  11. Takakura-Yamamoto R, Yamamoto S, Fukuda S, Kurimoto M: O-glycosylated species of natural human tumor-necrosis factor-alpha. Eur J Biochem. 1996 Jan 15;235(1-2):431-7. [PubMed:8631363 ]
  12. Pocsik E, Duda E, Wallach D: Phosphorylation of the 26 kDa TNF precursor in monocytic cells and in transfected HeLa cells. J Inflamm. 1995;45(3):152-60. [PubMed:8597870 ]
  13. Watts AD, Hunt NH, Wanigasekara Y, Bloomfield G, Wallach D, Roufogalis BD, Chaudhri G: A casein kinase I motif present in the cytoplasmic domain of members of the tumour necrosis factor ligand family is implicated in 'reverse signalling'. EMBO J. 1999 Apr 15;18(8):2119-26. [PubMed:10205166 ]
  14. Van Ostade X, Tavernier J, Prange T, Fiers W: Localization of the active site of human tumour necrosis factor (hTNF) by mutational analysis. EMBO J. 1991 Apr;10(4):827-36. [PubMed:2009860 ]
  15. Stevenson FT, Bursten SL, Locksley RM, Lovett DH: Myristyl acylation of the tumor necrosis factor alpha precursor on specific lysine residues. J Exp Med. 1992 Oct 1;176(4):1053-62. [PubMed:1402651 ]
  16. Moss ML, Jin SL, Milla ME, Bickett DM, Burkhart W, Carter HL, Chen WJ, Clay WC, Didsbury JR, Hassler D, Hoffman CR, Kost TA, Lambert MH, Leesnitzer MA, McCauley P, McGeehan G, Mitchell J, Moyer M, Pahel G, Rocque W, Overton LK, Schoenen F, Seaton T, Su JL, Becherer JD, et al.: Cloning of a disintegrin metalloproteinase that processes precursor tumour-necrosis factor-alpha. Nature. 1997 Feb 20;385(6618):733-6. [PubMed:9034191 ]
  17. Jones EY, Stuart DI, Walker NP: Structure of tumour necrosis factor. Nature. 1989 Mar 16;338(6212):225-8. [PubMed:2922050 ]
  18. Jones EY, Stuart DI, Walker NP: The structure of tumour necrosis factor--implications for biological function. J Cell Sci Suppl. 1990;13:11-8. [PubMed:1964681 ]
  19. Eck MJ, Sprang SR: The structure of tumor necrosis factor-alpha at 2.6 A resolution. Implications for receptor binding. J Biol Chem. 1989 Oct 15;264(29):17595-605. [PubMed:2551905 ]
  20. Reed C, Fu ZQ, Wu J, Xue YN, Harrison RW, Chen MJ, Weber IT: Crystal structure of TNF-alpha mutant R31D with greater affinity for receptor R1 compared with R2. Protein Eng. 1997 Oct;10(10):1101-7. [PubMed:9488135 ]
  21. Cha SS, Kim JS, Cho HS, Shin NK, Jeong W, Shin HC, Kim YJ, Hahn JH, Oh BH: High resolution crystal structure of a human tumor necrosis factor-alpha mutant with low systemic toxicity. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jan 23;273(4):2153-60. [PubMed:9442056 ]
  22. Balding J, Kane D, Livingstone W, Mynett-Johnson L, Bresnihan B, Smith O, FitzGerald O: Cytokine gene polymorphisms: association with psoriatic arthritis susceptibility and severity. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 May;48(5):1408-13. [PubMed:12746914 ]
  23. Kim YJ, Lee HS, Yoon JH, Kim CY, Park MH, Kim LH, Park BL, Shin HD: Association of TNF-alpha promoter polymorphisms with the clearance of hepatitis B virus infection. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Oct 1;12(19):2541-6. Epub 2003 Aug 5. [PubMed:12915457 ]