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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP02242
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7727
Name Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1
Synonyms
  1. Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide reductase subunit 1
Gene Name VKORC1
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin-sensi
Specific Function Involved in vitamin K metabolism. Catalytic subunit of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) complex which reduces inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Pathways
  • Acenocoumarol Action Pathway
  • Alteplase Action Pathway
  • Aminocaproic Acid Action Pathway
  • Anistreplase Action Pathway
  • Aprotinin Action Pathway
  • Ardeparin Action Pathway
  • Argatroban Action Pathway
  • Bivalirudin Action Pathway
  • Coagulation
  • Dicoumarol Action Pathway
  • Dicumarol Action Pathway
  • Enoxaparin Action Pathway
  • Fondaparinux Action Pathway
  • Heparin Action Pathway
  • Lepirudin Action Pathway
  • Phenindione Action Pathway
  • Phenprocoumon Action Pathway
  • Reteplase Action Pathway
  • Streptokinase Action Pathway
  • Tenecteplase Action Pathway
  • Tranexamic Acid Action Pathway
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Urokinase Action Pathway
  • Vitamin K Metabolism
  • Warfarin Action Pathway
  • Ximelagatran Action Pathway
Reactions
Phylloquinol + Oxidized dithiothreitol → Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide + 1,4-Dithiothreitol details
Vitamin K1 + Oxidized dithiothreitol + Water → Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide + 1,4-Dithiothreitol details
Vitamin K + Oxidized dithiothreitol + Water → Vitamin K epoxide + 1,4-Dithiothreitol details
2,3-Epoxymenaquinone + 1,4-Dithiothreitol → Menatetrenone + Oxidized dithiothreitol + Water details
GO Classification
Biological Process
drug metabolic process
post-translational protein modification
peptidyl-glutamic acid carboxylation
Cellular Component
endoplasmic reticulum membrane
integral to membrane
Molecular Function
vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin-sensitive) activity
Cellular Location
  1. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane
  2. Multi-pass membrane protein
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 16
Locus 16p11.2
SNPs VKORC1
Gene Sequence
>492 bp
ATGGGCAGCACCTGGGGGAGCCCTGGCTGGGTGCGGCTCGCTCTTTGCCTGACGGGCTTA
GTGCTCTCGCTCTACGCGCTGCACGTGAAGGCGGCGCGCGCCCGGGACCGGGATTACCGC
GCGCTCTGCGACGTGGGCACCGCCATCAGCTGTTCGCGCGTCTTCTCCTCCAGGTGGGGC
AGGGGTTTCGGGCTGGTGGAGCATGTGCTGGGACAGGACAGCATCCTCAATCAATCCAAC
AGCATATTCGGTTGCATCTTCTACACACTACAGCTATTGTTAGGTTGCCTGCGGACACGC
TGGGCCTCTGTCCTGATGCTGCTGAGCTCCCTGGTGTCTCTCGCTGGTTCTGTCTACCTG
GCCTGGATCCTGTTCTTCGTGCTCTATGATTTCTGCATTGTTTGTATCACCACCTATGCT
ATCAACGTGAGCCTGATGTGGCTCAGTTTCCGGAAGGTCCAAGAACCCCAGGGCAAGGCT
AAGAGGCACTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 163
Molecular Weight 18234.3
Theoretical pI 9.361
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1
MGSTWGSPGWVRLALCLTGLVLSLYALHVKAARARDRDYRALCDVGTAISCSRVFSSRWG
RGFGLVEHVLGQDSILNQSNSIFGCIFYTLQLLLGCLRTRWASVLMLLSSLVSLAGSVYL
AWILFFVLYDFCIVCITTYAINVSLMWLSFRKVQEPQGKAKRH
GenBank ID Protein 40217983
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q9BQB6
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name VKOR1_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID AY423044
GeneCard ID VKORC1
GenAtlas ID VKORC1
HGNC ID HGNC:23663
References
General References
  1. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. [PubMed:14702039 ]
  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Clark HF, Gurney AL, Abaya E, Baker K, Baldwin D, Brush J, Chen J, Chow B, Chui C, Crowley C, Currell B, Deuel B, Dowd P, Eaton D, Foster J, Grimaldi C, Gu Q, Hass PE, Heldens S, Huang A, Kim HS, Klimowski L, Jin Y, Johnson S, Lee J, Lewis L, Liao D, Mark M, Robbie E, Sanchez C, Schoenfeld J, Seshagiri S, Simmons L, Singh J, Smith V, Stinson J, Vagts A, Vandlen R, Watanabe C, Wieand D, Woods K, Xie MH, Yansura D, Yi S, Yu G, Yuan J, Zhang M, Zhang Z, Goddard A, Wood WI, Godowski P, Gray A: The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment. Genome Res. 2003 Oct;13(10):2265-70. Epub 2003 Sep 15. [PubMed:12975309 ]
  4. Rost S, Fregin A, Ivaskevicius V, Conzelmann E, Hortnagel K, Pelz HJ, Lappegard K, Seifried E, Scharrer I, Tuddenham EG, Muller CR, Strom TM, Oldenburg J: Mutations in VKORC1 cause warfarin resistance and multiple coagulation factor deficiency type 2. Nature. 2004 Feb 5;427(6974):537-41. [PubMed:14765194 ]
  5. Li T, Chang CY, Jin DY, Lin PJ, Khvorova A, Stafford DW: Identification of the gene for vitamin K epoxide reductase. Nature. 2004 Feb 5;427(6974):541-4. [PubMed:14765195 ]
  6. Goodstadt L, Ponting CP: Vitamin K epoxide reductase: homology, active site and catalytic mechanism. Trends Biochem Sci. 2004 Jun;29(6):289-92. [PubMed:15276181 ]
  7. Tie JK, Nicchitta C, von Heijne G, Stafford DW: Membrane topology mapping of vitamin K epoxide reductase by in vitro translation/cotranslocation. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 22;280(16):16410-6. Epub 2005 Feb 16. [PubMed:15716279 ]
  8. Rost S, Fregin A, Hunerberg M, Bevans CG, Muller CR, Oldenburg J: Site-directed mutagenesis of coumarin-type anticoagulant-sensitive VKORC1: evidence that highly conserved amino acids define structural requirements for enzymatic activity and inhibition by warfarin. Thromb Haemost. 2005 Oct;94(4):780-6. [PubMed:16270630 ]