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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP02383
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7873
Name Alpha-fetoprotein
Synonyms
  1. Alpha-1-fetoprotein
  2. Alpha-fetoglobulin
Gene Name AFP
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in transport
Specific Function Binds copper, nickel, and fatty acids as well as, and bilirubin less well than, serum albumin. Only a small percentage (less than 2%) of the human AFP shows estrogen-binding properties
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Component
extracellular region part
extracellular space
Process
establishment of localization
transport
Cellular Location
  1. Secreted
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:4
Locus 4q11-q13
SNPs AFP
Gene Sequence
>1830 bp
ATGAAGTGGGTGGAATCAATTTTTTTAATTTTCCTACTAAATTTTACTGAATCCAGAACA
CTGCATAGAAATGAATATGGAATAGCTTCCATATTGGATTCTTACCAATGTACTGCAGAG
ATAAGTTTAGCTGACCTGGCTACCATATTTTTTGCCCAGTTTGTTCAAGAAGCCACTTAC
AAGGAAGTAAGCAAAATGGTGAAAGATGCATTGACTGCAATTGAGAAACCCACTGGAGAT
GAACAGTCTTCAGGGTGTTTAGAAAACCAGCTACCTGCCTTTCTGGAAGAACTTTGCCAT
GAGAAAGAAATTTTGGAGAAGTACGGACATTCAGACTGCTGCAGCCAAAGTGAAGAGGGA
AGACATAACTGTTTTCTTGCACACAAAAAGCCCACTCCAGCATCGATCCCACTTTTCCAA
GTTCCAGAACCTGTCACAAGCTGTGAAGCATATGAAGAAGACAGGGAGACATTCATGAAC
AAATTCATTTATGAGATAGCAAGAAGGCATCCCTTCCTGTATGCACCTACAATTCTTCTT
TGGGCTGCTCGCTATGACAAAATAATTCCATCTTGCTGCAAAGCTGAAAATGCAGTTGAA
TGCTTCCAAACAAAGGCAGCAACAGTTACAAAAGAATTAAGAGAAAGCAGCTTGTTAAAT
CAACATGCATGTGCAGTAATGAAAAATTTTGGGACCCGAACTTTCCAAGCCATAACTGTT
ACTAAACTGAGTCAGAAGTTTACCAAAGTTAATTTTACTGAAATCCAGAAACTAGTCCTG
GATGTGGCCCATGTACATGAGCACTGTTGCAGAGGAGATGTGCTGGATTGTCTGCAGGAT
GGGGAAAAAATCATGTCCTACATATGTTCTCAACAAGACACTCTGTCAAACAAAATAACA
GAATGCTGCAAACTGACCACGCTGGAACGTGGTCAATGTATAATTCATGCAGAAAATGAT
GAAAAACCTGAAGGTCTATCTCCAAATCTAAACAGGTTTTTAGGAGATAGAGATTTTAAC
CAATTTTCTTCAGGGGAAAAAAATATCTTCTTGGCAAGTTTTGTTCATGAATATTCAAGA
AGACATCCTCAGCTTGCTGTCTCAGTAATTCTAAGAGTTGCTAAAGGATACCAGGAGTTA
TTGGAGAAGTGTTTCCAGACTGAAAACCCTCTTGAATGCCAAGATAAAGGAGAAGAAGAA
TTACAGAAATACATCCAGGAGAGCCAAGCATTGGCAAAGCGAAGCTGCGGCCTCTTCCAG
AAACTAGGAGAATATTACTTACAAAATGCGTTTCTCGTTGCTTACACAAAGAAAGCCCCC
CAGCTGACCTCGTCGGAGCTGATGGCCATCACCAGAAAAATGGCAGCCACAGCAGCCACT
TGTTGCCAACTCAGTGAGGACAAACTATTGGCCTGTGGCGAGGGAGCGGCTGACATTATT
ATCGGACACTTATGTATCAGACATGAAATGACTCCAGTAAACCCTGGTGTTGGCCAGTGC
TGCACTTCTTCATATGCCAACAGGAGGCCATGCTTCAGCAGCTTGGTGGTGGATGAAACA
TATGTCCCTCCTGCATTCTCTGATGACAAGTTCATTTTCCATAAGGATCTGTGCCAAGCT
CAGGGTGTAGCGCTGCAAACGATGAAGCAAGAGTTTCTCATTAACCTTGTGAAGCAAAAG
CCACAAATAACAGAGGAACAACTTGAGGCTGTCATTGCAGATTTCTCAGGCCTGTTGGAG
AAATGCTGCCAAGGCCAGGAACAGGAAGTCTGCTTTGCTGAAGAGGGACAAAAACTGATT
TCAAAAACTCGTGCTGCTTTGGGAGTTTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 609
Molecular Weight 68676.9
Theoretical pI 5.43
Pfam Domain Function
Signals
  • 1-18
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
>Alpha-fetoprotein
MKWVESIFLIFLLNFTESRTLHRNEYGIASILDSYQCTAEISLADLATIFFAQFVQEATY
KEVSKMVKDALTAIEKPTGDEQSSGCLENQLPAFLEELCHEKEILEKYGHSDCCSQSEEG
RHNCFLAHKKPTPASIPLFQVPEPVTSCEAYEEDRETFMNKFIYEIARRHPFLYAPTILL
WAARYDKIIPSCCKAENAVECFQTKAATVTKELRESSLLNQHACAVMKNFGTRTFQAITV
TKLSQKFTKVNFTEIQKLVLDVAHVHEHCCRGDVLDCLQDGEKIMSYICSQQDTLSNKIT
ECCKLTTLERGQCIIHAENDEKPEGLSPNLNRFLGDRDFNQFSSGEKNIFLASFVHEYSR
RHPQLAVSVILRVAKGYQELLEKCFQTENPLECQDKGEEELQKYIQESQALAKRSCGLFQ
KLGEYYLQNAFLVAYTKKAPQLTSSELMAITRKMAATAATCCQLSEDKLLACGEGAADII
IGHLCIRHEMTPVNPGVGQCCTSSYANRRPCFSSLVVDETYVPPAFSDDKFIFHKDLCQA
QGVALQTMKQEFLINLVKQKPQITEEQLEAVIADFSGLLEKCCQGQEQEVCFAEEGQKLI
SKTRAALGV
GenBank ID Protein 31351
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P02771
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name FETA_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID V01514
GeneCard ID AFP
GenAtlas ID AFP
HGNC ID HGNC:317
References
General References
  1. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. [PubMed:14702039 ]
  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Liu MC, Yu S, Sy J, Redman CM, Lipmann F: Tyrosine sulfation of proteins from the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Nov;82(21):7160-4. [PubMed:2414772 ]
  4. Morinaga T, Sakai M, Wegmann TG, Tamaoki T: Primary structures of human alpha-fetoprotein and its mRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Aug;80(15):4604-8. [PubMed:6192439 ]
  5. Gibbs PE, Zielinski R, Boyd C, Dugaiczyk A: Structure, polymorphism, and novel repeated DNA elements revealed by a complete sequence of the human alpha-fetoprotein gene. Biochemistry. 1987 Mar 10;26(5):1332-43. [PubMed:2436661 ]
  6. McVey JH, Michaelides K, Hansen LP, Ferguson-Smith M, Tilghman S, Krumlauf R, Tuddenham EG: A G-->A substitution in an HNF I binding site in the human alpha-fetoprotein gene is associated with hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein (HPAFP). Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Apr;2(4):379-84. [PubMed:7684942 ]
  7. Beattie WG, Dugaiczyk A: Structure and evolution of human alpha-fetoprotein deduced from partial sequence of cloned cDNA. Gene. 1982 Dec;20(3):415-22. [PubMed:6187626 ]
  8. Pucci P, Siciliano R, Malorni A, Marino G, Tecce MF, Ceccarini C, Terrana B: Human alpha-fetoprotein primary structure: a mass spectrometric study. Biochemistry. 1991 May 21;30(20):5061-6. [PubMed:1709810 ]
  9. Yachnin S, Hsu R, Heinrikson RL, Miller JB: Studies on human alpha-fetoprotein. Isolation and characterization of monomeric and polymeric forms and amino-terminal sequence analysis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977 Aug 23;493(2):418-28. [PubMed:70228 ]
  10. Aoyagi Y, Ikenaka T, Ichida F: Comparative chemical structures of human alpha-fetoproteins from fetal serum and from ascites fluid of a patient with hepatoma. Cancer Res. 1977 Oct;37(10):3663-7. [PubMed:71198 ]
  11. Ruoslahti E, Pihko H, Vaheri A, Seppala M, Virolainen M, Konttinen A: Alpha fetoprotein: structure and expression in man and inbred mouse strains under normal conditions and liver injury. Johns Hopkins Med J Suppl. 1974;3:249-55. [PubMed:4138095 ]
  12. Sakai M, Morinaga T, Urano Y, Watanabe K, Wegmann TG, Tamaoki T: The human alpha-fetoprotein gene. Sequence organization and the 5' flanking region. J Biol Chem. 1985 Apr 25;260(8):5055-60. [PubMed:2580830 ]
  13. Aoyagi Y, Ikenaka T, Ichida F: Copper(II)-binding ability of human alpha-fetoprotein. Cancer Res. 1978 Oct;38(10):3483-6. [PubMed:80265 ]
  14. Aoyagi Y, Ikenaka T, Ichida F: alpha-Fetoprotein as a carrier protein in plasma and its bilirubin-binding ability. Cancer Res. 1979 Sep;39(9):3571-4. [PubMed:89900 ]