Hmdb loader
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP02442
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7936
Name Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2
Synonyms Not Available
Gene Name BCL2
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in regulation of apoptosis
Specific Function Suppresses apoptosis in a variety of cell systems including factor-dependent lymphohematopoietic and neural cells. Regulates cell death by controlling the mitochondrial membrane permeability. Appears to function in a feedback loop system with caspases. Inhibits caspase activity either by preventing the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and/or by binding to the apoptosis-activating factor (APAF-1)
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
cell part
biological regulation
regulation of biological process
regulation of cell death
regulation of programmed cell death
regulation of apoptosis
regulation of cellular process
Cellular Location
  1. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane
  2. Single-pass membrane protein
  3. Single-pass membrane protein
  4. Single-pass membrane protein
  5. Mitochondrion outer membrane
  6. Nucleus membrane
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Locus 18q21.33|18q21.3
Gene Sequence
>720 bp
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 239
Molecular Weight 26265.7
Theoretical pI 7.32
Pfam Domain Function
  • None
Transmembrane Regions
  • 212-233
Protein Sequence
>Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2
GenBank ID Protein 28144173
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P10415
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name BCL2_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID AY220759
GeneCard ID BCL2
GenAtlas ID BCL2
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Yu J, Zhang L, Hwang PM, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B: PUMA induces the rapid apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells. Mol Cell. 2001 Mar;7(3):673-82. [PubMed:11463391 ]
  3. Oltersdorf T, Elmore SW, Shoemaker AR, Armstrong RC, Augeri DJ, Belli BA, Bruncko M, Deckwerth TL, Dinges J, Hajduk PJ, Joseph MK, Kitada S, Korsmeyer SJ, Kunzer AR, Letai A, Li C, Mitten MJ, Nettesheim DG, Ng S, Nimmer PM, O'Connor JM, Oleksijew A, Petros AM, Reed JC, Shen W, Tahir SK, Thompson CB, Tomaselli KJ, Wang B, Wendt MD, Zhang H, Fesik SW, Rosenberg SH: An inhibitor of Bcl-2 family proteins induces regression of solid tumours. Nature. 2005 Jun 2;435(7042):677-81. Epub 2005 May 15. [PubMed:15902208 ]
  4. Bruncko M, Oost TK, Belli BA, Ding H, Joseph MK, Kunzer A, Martineau D, McClellan WJ, Mitten M, Ng SC, Nimmer PM, Oltersdorf T, Park CM, Petros AM, Shoemaker AR, Song X, Wang X, Wendt MD, Zhang H, Fesik SW, Rosenberg SH, Elmore SW: Studies leading to potent, dual inhibitors of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. J Med Chem. 2007 Feb 22;50(4):641-62. Epub 2007 Jan 26. [PubMed:17256834 ]
  5. Tsujimoto Y, Croce CM: Analysis of the structure, transcripts, and protein products of bcl-2, the gene involved in human follicular lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Jul;83(14):5214-8. [PubMed:3523487 ]
  6. Eguchi Y, Ewert DL, Tsujimoto Y: Isolation and characterization of the chicken bcl-2 gene: expression in a variety of tissues including lymphoid and neuronal organs in adult and embryo. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992 Aug 25;20(16):4187-92. [PubMed:1508712 ]
  7. Cleary ML, Smith SD, Sklar J: Cloning and structural analysis of cDNAs for bcl-2 and a hybrid bcl-2/immunoglobulin transcript resulting from the t(14;18) translocation. Cell. 1986 Oct 10;47(1):19-28. [PubMed:2875799 ]
  8. Seto M, Jaeger U, Hockett RD, Graninger W, Bennett S, Goldman P, Korsmeyer SJ: Alternative promoters and exons, somatic mutation and deregulation of the Bcl-2-Ig fusion gene in lymphoma. EMBO J. 1988 Jan;7(1):123-31. [PubMed:2834197 ]
  9. Hua C, Zorn S, Jensen JP, Coupland RW, Ko HS, Wright JJ, Bakhshi A: Consequences of the t(14;18) chromosomal translocation in follicular lymphoma: deregulated expression of a chimeric and mutated BCL-2 gene. Oncogene Res. 1988 Feb;2(3):263-75. [PubMed:3285301 ]
  10. Tanaka S, Louie DC, Kant JA, Reed JC: Frequent incidence of somatic mutations in translocated BCL2 oncogenes of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Blood. 1992 Jan 1;79(1):229-37. [PubMed:1339299 ]
  11. Hockenbery D, Nunez G, Milliman C, Schreiber RD, Korsmeyer SJ: Bcl-2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks programmed cell death. Nature. 1990 Nov 22;348(6299):334-6. [PubMed:2250705 ]
  12. Yin XM, Oltvai ZN, Korsmeyer SJ: BH1 and BH2 domains of Bcl-2 are required for inhibition of apoptosis and heterodimerization with Bax. Nature. 1994 May 26;369(6478):321-3. [PubMed:8183370 ]
  13. Takayama S, Bimston DN, Matsuzawa S, Freeman BC, Aime-Sempe C, Xie Z, Morimoto RI, Reed JC: BAG-1 modulates the chaperone activity of Hsp70/Hsc70. EMBO J. 1997 Aug 15;16(16):4887-96. [PubMed:9305631 ]
  14. Cheng EH, Kirsch DG, Clem RJ, Ravi R, Kastan MB, Bedi A, Ueno K, Hardwick JM: Conversion of Bcl-2 to a Bax-like death effector by caspases. Science. 1997 Dec 12;278(5345):1966-8. [PubMed:9395403 ]
  15. Naumovski L, Cleary ML: The p53-binding protein 53BP2 also interacts with Bc12 and impedes cell cycle progression at G2/M. Mol Cell Biol. 1996 Jul;16(7):3884-92. [PubMed:8668206 ]
  16. Ruvolo PP, Deng X, May WS: Phosphorylation of Bcl2 and regulation of apoptosis. Leukemia. 2001 Apr;15(4):515-22. [PubMed:11368354 ]
  17. Yamamoto K, Ichijo H, Korsmeyer SJ: BCL-2 is phosphorylated and inactivated by an ASK1/Jun N-terminal protein kinase pathway normally activated at G(2)/M. Mol Cell Biol. 1999 Dec;19(12):8469-78. [PubMed:10567572 ]
  18. Qin W, Hu J, Guo M, Xu J, Li J, Yao G, Zhou X, Jiang H, Zhang P, Shen L, Wan D, Gu J: BNIPL-2, a novel homologue of BNIP-2, interacts with Bcl-2 and Cdc42GAP in apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Aug 22;308(2):379-85. [PubMed:12901880 ]
  19. Kang CB, Tai J, Chia J, Yoon HS: The flexible loop of Bcl-2 is required for molecular interaction with immunosuppressant FK-506 binding protein 38 (FKBP38). FEBS Lett. 2005 Feb 28;579(6):1469-76. [PubMed:15733859 ]
  20. Chintharlapalli SR, Jasti M, Malladi S, Parsa KV, Ballestero RP, Gonzalez-Garcia M: BMRP is a Bcl-2 binding protein that induces apoptosis. J Cell Biochem. 2005 Feb 15;94(3):611-26. [PubMed:15547950 ]
  21. Portier BP, Taglialatela G: Bcl-2 localized at the nuclear compartment induces apoptosis after transient overexpression. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 29;281(52):40493-502. Epub 2006 Nov 7. [PubMed:17090549 ]
  22. Petros AM, Medek A, Nettesheim DG, Kim DH, Yoon HS, Swift K, Matayoshi ED, Oltersdorf T, Fesik SW: Solution structure of the antiapoptotic protein bcl-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Mar 13;98(6):3012-7. Epub 2001 Feb 27. [PubMed:11248023 ]