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HMDB Protein ID HMDBP02563
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 8062
Name Midkine
  1. ARAP
  2. Amphiregulin-associated protein
  3. MK
  4. Midgestation and kidney protein
  5. Neurite outgrowth-promoting factor 2
  6. Neurite outgrowth-promoting protein
Gene Name MDK
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in growth factor activity
Specific Function Has heparin binding activity, and growth promoting activity. Involved in neointima formation after arterial injury, possibly by mediating leukocyte recruitment. Also involved in early fetal adrenal gland development
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
protein binding
receptor binding
growth factor activity
Cellular Location
  1. Secreted
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Locus 11p11.2
Gene Sequence
>432 bp
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 143
Molecular Weight 15585.1
Theoretical pI 10.49
Pfam Domain Function
  • 1-20
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
GenBank ID Protein 15079798
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P21741
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name MK_HUMAN
GenBank Gene ID BC011704
GeneCard ID MDK
GenAtlas ID MDK
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Zhang Z, Henzel WJ: Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites. Protein Sci. 2004 Oct;13(10):2819-24. Epub 2004 Aug 31. [PubMed:15340161 ]
  3. Kretschmer PJ, Fairhurst JL, Decker MM, Chan CP, Gluzman Y, Bohlen P, Kovesdi I: Cloning, characterization and developmental regulation of two members of a novel human gene family of neurite outgrowth-promoting proteins. Growth Factors. 1991;5(2):99-114. [PubMed:1768439 ]
  4. Novotny WF, Maffi T, Mehta RL, Milner PG: Identification of novel heparin-releasable proteins, as well as the cytokines midkine and pleiotrophin, in human postheparin plasma. Arterioscler Thromb. 1993 Dec;13(12):1798-805. [PubMed:8241100 ]
  5. Tsutsui J, Uehara K, Kadomatsu K, Matsubara S, Muramatsu T: A new family of heparin-binding factors: strong conservation of midkine (MK) sequences between the human and the mouse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Apr 30;176(2):792-7. [PubMed:2025291 ]
  6. Uehara K, Matsubara S, Kadomatsu K, Tsutsui J, Muramatsu T: Genomic structure of human midkine (MK), a retinoic acid-responsive growth/differentiation factor. J Biochem. 1992 May;111(5):563-7. [PubMed:1639750 ]
  7. Fairhurst JL, Kretschmer PJ, Kovacs E, Bohlen P, Kovesdi I: Structure of the gene coding for the human retinoic acid-inducible factor, MK. DNA Cell Biol. 1993 Mar;12(2):139-47. [PubMed:8471163 ]
  8. Shoyab M, McDonald VL, Dick K, Modrell B, Malik N, Plowman GD: Amphiregulin-associated protein: complete amino acid sequence of a protein produced by the 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Aug 30;179(1):572-8. [PubMed:1883381 ]
  9. Iwasaki W, Nagata K, Hatanaka H, Inui T, Kimura T, Muramatsu T, Yoshida K, Tasumi M, Inagaki F: Solution structure of midkine, a new heparin-binding growth factor. EMBO J. 1997 Dec 1;16(23):6936-46. [PubMed:9384573 ]