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HMDB Protein ID HMDBP02582
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 8081
Name Leptin
  1. Obese protein
  2. Obesity factor
Gene Name LEP
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in hormone activity
Specific Function May function as part of a signaling pathway that acts to regulate the size of the body fat depot. An increase in the level of LEP may act directly or indirectly on the CNS to inhibit food intake and/or regulate energy expenditure as part of a homeostatic mechanism to maintain constancy of the adipose mass
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
extracellular region
hormone activity
protein binding
receptor binding
biological regulation
regulation of biological process
regulation of cellular process
signal transduction
Cellular Location
  1. Secreted
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:7
Locus 7q31.3
Gene Sequence
>504 bp
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 167
Molecular Weight 18640.4
Theoretical pI 6.34
Pfam Domain Function
  • 1-21
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P41159
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name LEP_HUMAN
GenBank Gene ID U18915
GeneCard ID LEP
GenAtlas ID LEP
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Patel N, Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Altmann SW, Gish K, Balasubramanian S, Timans JC, Peterson D, Bell MP, Bazan JF, Varki A, Kastelein RA: OB-BP1/Siglec-6. a leptin- and sialic acid-binding protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily. J Biol Chem. 1999 Aug 6;274(32):22729-38. [PubMed:10428856 ]
  3. Zhang Y, Proenca R, Maffei M, Barone M, Leopold L, Friedman JM: Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature. 1994 Dec 1;372(6505):425-32. [PubMed:7984236 ]
  4. Masuzaki H, Ogawa Y, Isse N, Satoh N, Okazaki T, Shigemoto M, Mori K, Tamura N, Hosoda K, Yoshimasa Y, et al.: Human obese gene expression. Adipocyte-specific expression and regional differences in the adipose tissue. Diabetes. 1995 Jul;44(7):855-8. [PubMed:7789654 ]
  5. Gong DW, Bi S, Pratley RE, Weintraub BD: Genomic structure and promoter analysis of the human obese gene. J Biol Chem. 1996 Feb 23;271(8):3971-4. [PubMed:8626726 ]
  6. Isse N, Ogawa Y, Tamura N, Masuzaki H, Mori K, Okazaki T, Satoh N, Shigemoto M, Yoshimasa Y, Nishi S, et al.: Structural organization and chromosomal assignment of the human obese gene. J Biol Chem. 1995 Nov 17;270(46):27728-33. [PubMed:7499240 ]
  7. Niki T, Mori H, Tamori Y, Kishimoto-Hashirmoto M, Ueno H, Araki S, Masugi J, Sawant N, Majithia HR, Rais N, et al.: Human obese gene: molecular screening in Japanese and Asian Indian NIDDM patients associated with obesity. Diabetes. 1996 May;45(5):675-8. [PubMed:8621021 ]
  8. Kline AD, Becker GW, Churgay LM, Landen BE, Martin DK, Muth WL, Rathnachalam R, Richardson JM, Schoner B, Ulmer M, Hale JE: Leptin is a four-helix bundle: secondary structure by NMR. FEBS Lett. 1997 Apr 28;407(2):239-42. [PubMed:9166907 ]
  9. Zhang F, Basinski MB, Beals JM, Briggs SL, Churgay LM, Clawson DK, DiMarchi RD, Furman TC, Hale JE, Hsiung HM, Schoner BE, Smith DP, Zhang XY, Wery JP, Schevitz RW: Crystal structure of the obese protein leptin-E100. Nature. 1997 May 8;387(6629):206-9. [PubMed:9144295 ]
  10. Strobel A, Issad T, Camoin L, Ozata M, Strosberg AD: A leptin missense mutation associated with hypogonadism and morbid obesity. Nat Genet. 1998 Mar;18(3):213-5. [PubMed:9500540 ]