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HMDB Protein ID HMDBP02723
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 8228
Name Translocator protein
  1. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor
  2. PBR
  3. PKBS
  4. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor
Gene Name TSPO
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific Function Responsible for the manifestation of peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites and is most likely to comprise binding domains for benzodiazepines and isoquinoline carboxamides. May play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme. Plays a role in the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes in steroidogenic cells
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
cell part
membrane part
intrinsic to membrane
integral to membrane
Cellular Location
  1. Mitochondrion membrane
  2. Multi-pass membrane protein
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:2
Locus 22q13.31
Gene Sequence
>510 bp
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 169
Molecular Weight 18778.7
Theoretical pI 9.33
Pfam Domain Function
  • None
Transmembrane Regions
  • 6-26
  • 47-67
  • 80-100
  • 106-126
  • 135-155
Protein Sequence
>Translocator protein
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P30536
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name TSPOA_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID M36035
GeneCard ID TSPO
GenAtlas ID TSPO
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, Chissoe S, Hunt AR, Collins JE, Bruskiewich R, Beare DM, Clamp M, Smink LJ, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Babbage A, Bagguley C, Bailey J, Barlow K, Bates KN, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bridgeman AM, Buck D, Burgess J, Burrill WD, O'Brien KP, et al.: The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. Nature. 1999 Dec 2;402(6761):489-95. [PubMed:10591208 ]
  3. Collins JE, Wright CL, Edwards CA, Davis MP, Grinham JA, Cole CG, Goward ME, Aguado B, Mallya M, Mokrab Y, Huckle EJ, Beare DM, Dunham I: A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome. Genome Biol. 2004;5(10):R84. Epub 2004 Sep 30. [PubMed:15461802 ]
  4. Riond J, Mattei MG, Kaghad M, Dumont X, Guillemot JC, Le Fur G, Caput D, Ferrara P: Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a human peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Jan 30;195(2):305-11. [PubMed:1847678 ]
  5. Yakovlev AG, Ruffo M, Jurka J, Krueger KE: Comparison of repetitive elements in the third intron of human and rodent mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor-encoding genes. Gene. 1995 Apr 3;155(2):201-5. [PubMed:7721091 ]
  6. Costa B, Salvetti A, Rossi L, Spinetti F, Lena A, Chelli B, Rechichi M, Da Pozzo E, Gremigni V, Martini C: Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor: characterization in human T-lymphoma Jurkat cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;69(1):37-44. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [PubMed:16189298 ]
  7. Galiegue S, Jbilo O, Combes T, Bribes E, Carayon P, Le Fur G, Casellas P: Cloning and characterization of PRAX-1. A new protein that specifically interacts with the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 29;274(5):2938-52. [PubMed:9915832 ]
  8. Papadopoulos V, Baraldi M, Guilarte TR, Knudsen TB, Lacapere JJ, Lindemann P, Norenberg MD, Nutt D, Weizman A, Zhang MR, Gavish M: Translocator protein (18kDa): new nomenclature for the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor based on its structure and molecular function. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 Aug;27(8):402-9. Epub 2006 Jul 5. [PubMed:16822554 ]
  9. Tan JM, Chow VT: Cellular expression, localization and interactions of the product of the human MOST-1 gene associated with breast and prostate cancers. Int J Oncol. 2007 Jan;30(1):81-9. [PubMed:17143515 ]
  10. Kurumaji A, Nomoto H, Yoshikawa T, Okubo Y, Toru M: An association study between two missense variations of the benzodiazepine receptor (peripheral) gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese sample. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2000;107(4):491-500. [PubMed:11215759 ]
  11. Kurumaji A, Nomoto H, Yamada K, Yoshikawa T, Toru M: No association of two missense variations of the benzodiazepine receptor (peripheral) gene and mood disorders in a Japanese sample. Am J Med Genet. 2001 Mar 8;105(2):172-5. [PubMed:11304832 ]