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HMDB Protein ID HMDBP02918
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 8426
Name ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11
  1. IKATP
  2. Inward rectifier K(+) channel Kir6.2
  3. Potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J member 11
Gene Name KCNJ11
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function This receptor is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. Can be blocked by extracellular barium
  • Acebutolol Action Pathway
  • Alprenolol Action Pathway
  • Amiodarone Action Pathway
  • Amlodipine Action Pathway
  • Arbutamine Action Pathway
  • Atenolol Action Pathway
  • Betaxolol Action Pathway
  • Bevantolol Action Pathway
  • Bisoprolol Action Pathway
  • Bopindolol Action Pathway
  • Bupranolol Action Pathway
  • Carteolol Action Pathway
  • Carvedilol Action Pathway
  • Diltiazem Action Pathway
  • Disopyramide Action Pathway
  • Dobutamine Action Pathway
  • Epinephrine Action Pathway
  • Esmolol Action Pathway
  • Felodipine Action Pathway
  • Flecainide Action Pathway
  • Fosphenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) Action Pathway
  • Ibutilide Action Pathway
  • Isoprenaline Action Pathway
  • Isradipine Action Pathway
  • Labetalol Action Pathway
  • Levobunolol Action Pathway
  • Lidocaine (Antiarrhythmic) Action Pathway
  • Metipranolol Action Pathway
  • Metoprolol Action Pathway
  • Mexiletine Action Pathway
  • Muscle/Heart Contraction
  • Nadolol Action Pathway
  • Nebivolol Action Pathway
  • Nifedipine Action Pathway
  • Nimodipine Action Pathway
  • Nisoldipine Action Pathway
  • Nitrendipine Action Pathway
  • Oxprenolol Action Pathway
  • Penbutolol Action Pathway
  • Phenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) Action Pathway
  • Pindolol Action Pathway
  • Practolol Action Pathway
  • Procainamide (Antiarrhythmic) Action Pathway
  • Propranolol Action Pathway
  • Quinidine Action Pathway
  • Sotalol Action Pathway
  • Timolol Action Pathway
  • Tocainide Action Pathway
  • Verapamil Action Pathway
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
cell part
atp-activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity
transmembrane transporter activity
substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity
ion transmembrane transporter activity
transporter activity
ion channel activity
inward rectifier potassium channel activity
cation channel activity
potassium channel activity
voltage-gated potassium channel activity
establishment of localization
monovalent inorganic cation transport
potassium ion transport
ion transport
cation transport
Cellular Location
  1. Membrane
  2. Multi-pass membrane protein
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Locus 11p15.1
Gene Sequence
>1173 bp
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 390
Molecular Weight 43540.4
Theoretical pI 8.1
Pfam Domain Function
  • None
Transmembrane Regions
  • 69-93
  • 145-166
Protein Sequence
>ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11
GenBank ID Protein 62023267
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q14654
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name IRK11_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID BC064497
GeneCard ID KCNJ11
GenAtlas ID KCNJ11
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Taylor TD, Noguchi H, Totoki Y, Toyoda A, Kuroki Y, Dewar K, Lloyd C, Itoh T, Takeda T, Kim DW, She X, Barlow KF, Bloom T, Bruford E, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Eichler E, FitzGerald MG, Jaffe DB, LaButti K, Nicol R, Park HS, Seaman C, Sougnez C, Yang X, Zimmer AR, Zody MC, Birren BW, Nusbaum C, Fujiyama A, Hattori M, Rogers J, Lander ES, Sakaki Y: Human chromosome 11 DNA sequence and analysis including novel gene identification. Nature. 2006 Mar 23;440(7083):497-500. [PubMed:16554811 ]
  3. Halushka MK, Fan JB, Bentley K, Hsie L, Shen N, Weder A, Cooper R, Lipshutz R, Chakravarti A: Patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes for blood-pressure homeostasis. Nat Genet. 1999 Jul;22(3):239-47. [PubMed:10391210 ]
  4. Meissner T, Beinbrech B, Mayatepek E: Congenital hyperinsulinism: molecular basis of a heterogeneous disease. Hum Mutat. 1999;13(5):351-61. [PubMed:10338089 ]
  5. Inagaki N, Gonoi T, Clement JP 4th, Namba N, Inazawa J, Gonzalez G, Aguilar-Bryan L, Seino S, Bryan J: Reconstitution of IKATP: an inward rectifier subunit plus the sulfonylurea receptor. Science. 1995 Nov 17;270(5239):1166-70. [PubMed:7502040 ]
  6. Ribalet B, John SA, Weiss JN: Molecular basis for Kir6.2 channel inhibition by adenine nucleotides. Biophys J. 2003 Jan;84(1):266-76. [PubMed:12524280 ]
  7. Thomas PM, Cote GJ, Hallman DM, Mathew PM: Homozygosity mapping, to chromosome 11p, of the gene for familial persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Feb;56(2):416-21. [PubMed:7847376 ]
  8. Thomas P, Ye Y, Lightner E: Mutation of the pancreatic islet inward rectifier Kir6.2 also leads to familial persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. Hum Mol Genet. 1996 Nov;5(11):1809-12. [PubMed:8923010 ]
  9. Sakura H, Wat N, Horton V, Millns H, Turner RC, Ashcroft FM: Sequence variations in the human Kir6.2 gene, a subunit of the beta-cell ATP-sensitive K-channel: no association with NIDDM in while Caucasian subjects or evidence of abnormal function when expressed in vitro. Diabetologia. 1996 Oct;39(10):1233-6. [PubMed:8897013 ]
  10. Inoue H, Ferrer J, Warren-Perry M, Zhang Y, Millns H, Turner RC, Elbein SC, Hampe CL, Suarez BK, Inagaki N, Seino S, Permutt MA: Sequence variants in the pancreatic islet beta-cell inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir6.2 (Bir) gene: identification and lack of role in Caucasian patients with NIDDM. Diabetes. 1997 Mar;46(3):502-7. [PubMed:9032109 ]
  11. Aguilar-Bryan L, Bryan J: Molecular biology of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels. Endocr Rev. 1999 Apr;20(2):101-35. [PubMed:10204114 ]
  12. Huopio H, Jaaskelainen J, Komulainen J, Miettinen R, Karkkainen P, Laakso M, Tapanainen P, Voutilainen R, Otonkoski T: Acute insulin response tests for the differential diagnosis of congenital hyperinsulinism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Oct;87(10):4502-7. [PubMed:12364426 ]
  13. Sagen JV, Raeder H, Hathout E, Shehadeh N, Gudmundsson K, Baevre H, Abuelo D, Phornphutkul C, Molnes J, Bell GI, Gloyn AL, Hattersley AT, Molven A, Sovik O, Njolstad PR: Permanent neonatal diabetes due to mutations in KCNJ11 encoding Kir6.2: patient characteristics and initial response to sulfonylurea therapy. Diabetes. 2004 Oct;53(10):2713-8. [PubMed:15448106 ]
  14. Vaxillaire M, Populaire C, Busiah K, Cave H, Gloyn AL, Hattersley AT, Czernichow P, Froguel P, Polak M: Kir6.2 mutations are a common cause of permanent neonatal diabetes in a large cohort of French patients. Diabetes. 2004 Oct;53(10):2719-22. [PubMed:15448107 ]
  15. Gloyn AL, Cummings EA, Edghill EL, Harries LW, Scott R, Costa T, Temple IK, Hattersley AT, Ellard S: Permanent neonatal diabetes due to paternal germline mosaicism for an activating mutation of the KCNJ11 Gene encoding the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta-cell potassium adenosine triphosphate channel. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug;89(8):3932-5. [PubMed:15292329 ]
  16. Tornovsky S, Crane A, Cosgrove KE, Hussain K, Lavie J, Heyman M, Nesher Y, Kuchinski N, Ben-Shushan E, Shatz O, Nahari E, Potikha T, Zangen D, Tenenbaum-Rakover Y, de Vries L, Argente J, Gracia R, Landau H, Eliakim A, Lindley K, Dunne MJ, Aguilar-Bryan L, Glaser B: Hyperinsulinism of infancy: novel ABCC8 and KCNJ11 mutations and evidence for additional locus heterogeneity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Dec;89(12):6224-34. [PubMed:15579781 ]
  17. Gloyn AL, Pearson ER, Antcliff JF, Proks P, Bruining GJ, Slingerland AS, Howard N, Srinivasan S, Silva JM, Molnes J, Edghill EL, Frayling TM, Temple IK, Mackay D, Shield JP, Sumnik Z, van Rhijn A, Wales JK, Clark P, Gorman S, Aisenberg J, Ellard S, Njolstad PR, Ashcroft FM, Hattersley AT: Activating mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-sensitive potassium-channel subunit Kir6.2 and permanent neonatal diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2004 Apr 29;350(18):1838-49. [PubMed:15115830 ]
  18. Proks P, Antcliff JF, Lippiat J, Gloyn AL, Hattersley AT, Ashcroft FM: Molecular basis of Kir6.2 mutations associated with neonatal diabetes or neonatal diabetes plus neurological features. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 14;101(50):17539-44. Epub 2004 Dec 6. [PubMed:15583126 ]
  19. Ohkubo K, Nagashima M, Naito Y, Taguchi T, Suita S, Okamoto N, Fujinaga H, Tsumura K, Kikuchi K, Ono J: Genotypes of the pancreatic beta-cell K-ATP channel and clinical phenotypes of Japanese patients with persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia of infancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Apr;62(4):458-65. [PubMed:15807877 ]
  20. Gloyn AL, Reimann F, Girard C, Edghill EL, Proks P, Pearson ER, Temple IK, Mackay DJ, Shield JP, Freedenberg D, Noyes K, Ellard S, Ashcroft FM, Gribble FM, Hattersley AT: Relapsing diabetes can result from moderately activating mutations in KCNJ11. Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Apr 1;14(7):925-34. Epub 2005 Feb 17. [PubMed:15718250 ]
  21. Massa O, Iafusco D, D'Amato E, Gloyn AL, Hattersley AT, Pasquino B, Tonini G, Dammacco F, Zanette G, Meschi F, Porzio O, Bottazzo G, Crino A, Lorini R, Cerutti F, Vanelli M, Barbetti F: KCNJ11 activating mutations in Italian patients with permanent neonatal diabetes. Hum Mutat. 2005 Jan;25(1):22-7. [PubMed:15580558 ]
  22. Henwood MJ, Kelly A, Macmullen C, Bhatia P, Ganguly A, Thornton PS, Stanley CA: Genotype-phenotype correlations in children with congenital hyperinsulinism due to recessive mutations of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel genes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Feb;90(2):789-94. Epub 2004 Nov 23. [PubMed:15562009 ]
  23. Yorifuji T, Nagashima K, Kurokawa K, Kawai M, Oishi M, Akazawa Y, Hosokawa M, Yamada Y, Inagaki N, Nakahata T: The C42R mutation in the Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) gene as a cause of transient neonatal diabetes, childhood diabetes, or later-onset, apparently type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jun;90(6):3174-8. Epub 2005 Mar 22. [PubMed:15784703 ]
  24. Marthinet E, Bloc A, Oka Y, Tanizawa Y, Wehrle-Haller B, Bancila V, Dubuis JM, Philippe J, Schwitzgebel VM: Severe congenital hyperinsulinism caused by a mutation in the Kir6.2 subunit of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel impairing trafficking and function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Sep;90(9):5401-6. Epub 2005 Jul 5. [PubMed:15998776 ]
  25. Shimomura K, Girard CA, Proks P, Nazim J, Lippiat JD, Cerutti F, Lorini R, Ellard S, Hattersley AT, Barbetti F, Ashcroft FM: Mutations at the same residue (R50) of Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) that cause neonatal diabetes produce different functional effects. Diabetes. 2006 Jun;55(6):1705-12. [PubMed:16731833 ]
  26. Flanagan SE, Edghill EL, Gloyn AL, Ellard S, Hattersley AT: Mutations in KCNJ11, which encodes Kir6.2, are a common cause of diabetes diagnosed in the first 6 months of life, with the phenotype determined by genotype. Diabetologia. 2006 Jun;49(6):1190-7. Epub 2006 Apr 12. [PubMed:16609879 ]
  27. Fernandez-Marmiesse A, Salas A, Vega A, Fernandez-Lorenzo JR, Barreiro J, Carracedo A: Mutation spectra of ABCC8 gene in Spanish patients with Hyperinsulinism of Infancy (HI). Hum Mutat. 2006 Feb;27(2):214. [PubMed:16429405 ]
  28. Lin YW, MacMullen C, Ganguly A, Stanley CA, Shyng SL: A novel KCNJ11 mutation associated with congenital hyperinsulinism reduces the intrinsic open probability of beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channels. J Biol Chem. 2006 Feb 3;281(5):3006-12. Epub 2005 Dec 6. [PubMed:16332676 ]
  29. Suchi M, MacMullen CM, Thornton PS, Adzick NS, Ganguly A, Ruchelli ED, Stanley CA: Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses of the focal form of congenital hyperinsulinism. Mod Pathol. 2006 Jan;19(1):122-9. [PubMed:16357843 ]
  30. Stanik J, Gasperikova D, Paskova M, Barak L, Javorkova J, Jancova E, Ciljakova M, Hlava P, Michalek J, Flanagan SE, Pearson E, Hattersley AT, Ellard S, Klimes I: Prevalence of permanent neonatal diabetes in Slovakia and successful replacement of insulin with sulfonylurea therapy in KCNJ11 and ABCC8 mutation carriers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Apr;92(4):1276-82. Epub 2007 Jan 9. [PubMed:17213273 ]