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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP03236
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 8804
  • HMDBP04399
Name Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase
Synonyms
  1. Conjugase
  2. GH
  3. Gamma-Glu-X carboxypeptidase
Gene Name GGH
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in catalytic activity
Specific Function Hydrolyzes the polyglutamate sidechains of pteroylpolyglutamates. Progressively removes gamma-glutamyl residues from pteroylpoly-gamma-glutamate to yield pteroyl-alpha-glutamate (folic acid) and free glutamate. May play an important role in the bioavailability of dietary pteroylpolyglutamates and in the metabolism of pteroylpolyglutamates and antifolates.
Pathways
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Folate malabsorption, hereditary
  • Folate Metabolism
  • Methotrexate Action Pathway
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)
Reactions
Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2) + → Tetrahydrofolic acid + details
GO Classification
Biological Process
response to zinc ion
glutamine metabolic process
response to insulin stimulus
response to drug
response to ethanol
Cellular Component
cytosol
melanosome
lysosome
extracellular space
Function
exopeptidase activity
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
omega peptidase activity
peptidase activity
peptidase activity, acting on l-amino acid peptides
Molecular Function
gamma-glutamyl-peptidase activity
Process
metabolic process
cellular metabolic process
glutamine metabolic process
glutamine family amino acid metabolic process
cellular amino acid and derivative metabolic process
cellular amino acid metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Melanosome
  2. Lysosome
  3. Secreted
  4. extracellular space
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 8
Locus 8q12.3
SNPs GGH
Gene Sequence
>957 bp
ATGGCCAGTCCGGGCTGCCTGCTGTGCGTGCTGGGCCTGCTACTCTGCGGGGCGGCGAGC
CTCGAGCTGTCTAGACCCCACGGCGACACCGCCAAGAAGCCCATCATCGGAATATTAATG
CAAAAATGCCGTAATAAAGTCATGAAAAACTATGGAAGATACTATATTGCTGCGTCCTAT
GTAAAGTACTTGGAGTCTGCAGGTGCGAGAGTTGTACCAGTAAGGCTGGATCTTACAGAG
AAAGACTATGAAATACTTTTCAAATCTATTAATGGAATCCTTTTCCCTGGAGGAAGTGTT
GACCTCAGACGCTCAGATTATGCTAAAGTGGCCAAAATATTTTATAACTTGTCCATACAG
AGTTTTGATGATGGAGACTATTTTCCTGTGTGGGGCACATGCCTTGGATTTGAAGAGCTT
TCACTGCTGATTAGTGGAGAGTGCTTATTAACTGCCACAGATACTGTTGACGTGGCAATG
CCGCTGAACTTCACTGGAGGTCAATTGCACAGCAGAATGTTCCAGAATTTTCCTACTGAG
TTGTTGCTGTCATTAGCAGTAGAACCTCTGACTGCCAATTTCCATAAGTGGAGCCTCTCC
GTGAAGAATTTTACAATGAATGAAAAGTTAAAGAAGTTTTTCAATGTCTTAACTACAAAT
ACAGATGGCAAGATTGAGTTTATTTCAACAATGGAAGGATATAAGTATCCAGTATATGGT
GTCCAGTGGCATCCAGAGAAAGCACCTTATGAGTGGAAGAATTTGGATGGCATTTCCCAT
GCACCTAATGCTGTGAAAACCGCATTTTATTTAGCAGAGTTTTTTGTTAATGAAGCTCGG
AAAAACAACCATCATTTTAAATCTGAATCTGAAGAGGAGAAAGCATTGATTTATCAGTTC
AGTCCAATTTATACTGGAAATATTTCTTCATTTCAGCAATGTTACATATTTGATTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 318
Molecular Weight 35964.045
Theoretical pI 7.111
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase
MASPGCLLCVLGLLLCGAASLELSRPHGDTAKKPIIGILMQKCRNKVMKNYGRYYIAASY
VKYLESAGARVVPVRLDLTEKDYEILFKSINGILFPGGSVDLRRSDYAKVAKIFYNLSIQ
SFDDGDYFPVWGTCLGFEELSLLISGECLLTATDTVDVAMPLNFTGGQLHSRMFQNFPTE
LLLSLAVEPLTANFHKWSLSVKNFTMNEKLKKFFNVLTTNTDGKIEFISTMEGYKYPVYG
VQWHPEKAPYEWKNLDGISHAPNAVKTAFYLAEFFVNEARKNNHHFKSESEEEKALIYQF
SPIYTGNISSFQQCYIFD
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q92820
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name GGH_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID U55206
GeneCard ID GGH
GenAtlas ID GGH
HGNC ID HGNC:4248
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Chi A, Valencia JC, Hu ZZ, Watabe H, Yamaguchi H, Mangini NJ, Huang H, Canfield VA, Cheng KC, Yang F, Abe R, Yamagishi S, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Wu C, Appella E, Hunt DF: Proteomic and bioinformatic characterization of the biogenesis and function of melanosomes. J Proteome Res. 2006 Nov;5(11):3135-44. [PubMed:17081065 ]
  3. Basrur V, Yang F, Kushimoto T, Higashimoto Y, Yasumoto K, Valencia J, Muller J, Vieira WD, Watabe H, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Hunt DF, Appella E: Proteomic analysis of early melanosomes: identification of novel melanosomal proteins. J Proteome Res. 2003 Jan-Feb;2(1):69-79. [PubMed:12643545 ]
  4. Yao R, Schneider E, Ryan TJ, Galivan J: Human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase: cloning and characterization of the enzyme expressed in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Sep 17;93(19):10134-8. [PubMed:8816764 ]
  5. Yin D, Chave KJ, Macaluso CR, Galivan J, Yao R: Structural organization of the human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase gene. Gene. 1999 Oct 1;238(2):463-70. [PubMed:10570974 ]
  6. Chave KJ, Galivan J, Ryan TJ: Site-directed mutagenesis establishes cysteine-110 as essential for enzyme activity in human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase. Biochem J. 1999 Nov 1;343 Pt 3:551-5. [PubMed:10527932 ]
  7. Chave KJ, Auger IE, Galivan J, Ryan TJ: Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis define the catalytic motif in human gamma -glutamyl hydrolase. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 22;275(51):40365-70. [PubMed:11005824 ]
  8. Li H, Ryan TJ, Chave KJ, Van Roey P: Three-dimensional structure of human gamma -glutamyl hydrolase. A class I glatamine amidotransferase adapted for a complex substate. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 5;277(27):24522-9. Epub 2002 Apr 12. [PubMed:11953431 ]