Hmdb loader
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP07035
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 12654
Name Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2
  1. Cytochrome c oxidase polypeptide II
Gene Name MT-CO2
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in copper ion binding
Specific Function Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1- 3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. Subunit 2 transfers the electrons from cytochrome c via its binuclear copper A center to the bimetallic center of the catalytic subunit 1
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
cell part
membrane part
intrinsic to membrane
integral to membrane
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
catalytic activity
transition metal ion binding
electron carrier activity
iron ion binding
heme binding
oxidoreductase activity
heme-copper terminal oxidase activity
cytochrome-c oxidase activity
copper ion binding
metabolic process
generation of precursor metabolites and energy
electron transport chain
respiratory electron transport chain
cellular metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Mitochondrion inner membrane
  2. Multi-pass membrane protein
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Not Available
Locus Not Available
Gene Sequence
>684 bp
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 227
Molecular Weight 25564.7
Theoretical pI 4.44
Pfam Domain Function
  • None
Transmembrane Regions
  • 27-48
  • 63-82
Protein Sequence
>Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2
GenBank ID Protein 12584
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P00403
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name COX2_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID X15759
GeneCard ID MT-CO2
GenAtlas ID MT-CO2
General References
  1. Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, de Bruijn MH, Coulson AR, Drouin J, Eperon IC, Nierlich DP, Roe BA, Sanger F, Schreier PH, Smith AJ, Staden R, Young IG: Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome. Nature. 1981 Apr 9;290(5806):457-65. [PubMed:7219534 ]
  2. Horai S, Hayasaka K, Kondo R, Tsugane K, Takahata N: Recent African origin of modern humans revealed by complete sequences of hominoid mitochondrial DNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jan 17;92(2):532-6. [PubMed:7530363 ]
  3. Moilanen JS, Finnila S, Majamaa K: Lineage-specific selection in human mtDNA: lack of polymorphisms in a segment of MTND5 gene in haplogroup J. Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Dec;20(12):2132-42. Epub 2003 Aug 29. [PubMed:12949126 ]
  4. Ingman M, Kaessmann H, Paabo S, Gyllensten U: Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans. Nature. 2000 Dec 7;408(6813):708-13. [PubMed:11130070 ]
  5. Ingman M, Gyllensten U: Mitochondrial genome variation and evolutionary history of Australian and New Guinean aborigines. Genome Res. 2003 Jul;13(7):1600-6. [PubMed:12840039 ]
  6. Coble MD, Just RS, O'Callaghan JE, Letmanyi IH, Peterson CT, Irwin JA, Parsons TJ: Single nucleotide polymorphisms over the entire mtDNA genome that increase the power of forensic testing in Caucasians. Int J Legal Med. 2004 Jun;118(3):137-46. Epub 2004 Feb 4. [PubMed:14760490 ]
  7. Marzuki S, Noer AS, Lertrit P, Thyagarajan D, Kapsa R, Utthanaphol P, Byrne E: Normal variants of human mitochondrial DNA and translation products: the building of a reference data base. Hum Genet. 1991 Dec;88(2):139-45. [PubMed:1757091 ]
  8. Polyak K, Li Y, Zhu H, Lengauer C, Willson JK, Markowitz SD, Trush MA, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B: Somatic mutations of the mitochondrial genome in human colorectal tumours. Nat Genet. 1998 Nov;20(3):291-3. [PubMed:9806551 ]
  9. Power MD, Kiefer MC, Barr PJ, Reeves R: Nucleotide sequence of human mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase II cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Aug 25;17(16):6734. [PubMed:2550900 ]
  10. Barrell BG, Bankier AT, Drouin J: A different genetic code in human mitochondria. Nature. 1979 Nov 8;282(5735):189-94. [PubMed:226894 ]
  11. Ruvolo M, Zehr S, von Dornum M, Pan D, Chang B, Lin J: Mitochondrial COII sequences and modern human origins. Mol Biol Evol. 1993 Nov;10(6):1115-35. [PubMed:8277847 ]
  12. Rahman S, Taanman JW, Cooper JM, Nelson I, Hargreaves I, Meunier B, Hanna MG, Garcia JJ, Capaldi RA, Lake BD, Leonard JV, Schapira AH: A missense mutation of cytochrome oxidase subunit II causes defective assembly and myopathy. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Oct;65(4):1030-9. [PubMed:10486321 ]