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HMDB Protein ID HMDBP07644
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 13353
Name C-X-C motif chemokine 11
  1. Beta-R1
  2. H174
  3. I-TAC
  4. IP-9
  5. Interferon gamma-inducible protein 9
  6. Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant
  7. Small-inducible cytokine B11
Gene Name CXCL11
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in chemokine activity
Specific Function Chemotactic for interleukin-activated T-cells but not unstimulated T-cells, neutrophils or monocytes. Induces calcium release in activated T-cells. Binds to CXCR3. May play an important role in CNS diseases which involve T-cell recruitment. May play a role in skin immune responses
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
extracellular region
cytokine activity
chemokine activity
protein binding
receptor binding
immune system process
immune response
Cellular Location
  1. Secreted
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:4
Locus 4q21.2
Gene Sequence
>285 bp
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 94
Molecular Weight 10364.5
Theoretical pI 10.63
Pfam Domain Function
  • 1-21
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
>C-X-C motif chemokine 11
GenBank ID Protein 2580586
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID O14625
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name CXL11_HUMAN
GenBank Gene ID AF002985
GeneCard ID CXCL11
GenAtlas ID CXCL11
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Cole KE, Strick CA, Paradis TJ, Ogborne KT, Loetscher M, Gladue RP, Lin W, Boyd JG, Moser B, Wood DE, Sahagan BG, Neote K: Interferon-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC): a novel non-ELR CXC chemokine with potent activity on activated T cells through selective high affinity binding to CXCR3. J Exp Med. 1998 Jun 15;187(12):2009-21. [PubMed:9625760 ]
  3. Rani MR, Foster GR, Leung S, Leaman D, Stark GR, Ransohoff RM: Characterization of beta-R1, a gene that is selectively induced by interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. J Biol Chem. 1996 Sep 13;271(37):22878-84. [PubMed:8798467 ]
  4. Jacobs KA, Collins-Racie LA, Colbert M, Duckett M, Golden-Fleet M, Kelleher K, Kriz R, LaVallie ER, Merberg D, Spaulding V, Stover J, Williamson MJ, McCoy JM: A genetic selection for isolating cDNAs encoding secreted proteins. Gene. 1997 Oct 1;198(1-2):289-96. [PubMed:9370294 ]
  5. Tensen CP, Flier J, Van Der Raaij-Helmer EM, Sampat-Sardjoepersad S, Van Der Schors RC, Leurs R, Scheper RJ, Boorsma DM, Willemze R: Human IP-9: A keratinocyte-derived high affinity CXC-chemokine ligand for the IP-10/Mig receptor (CXCR3). J Invest Dermatol. 1999 May;112(5):716-22. [PubMed:10233762 ]
  6. Laich A, Meyer M, Werner ER, Werner-Felmayer G: Structure and expression of the human small cytokine B subfamily member 11 (SCYB11/formerly SCYB9B, alias I-TAC) gene cloned from IFN-gamma-treated human monocytes (THP-1). J Interferon Cytokine Res. 1999 May;19(5):505-13. [PubMed:10386863 ]
  7. Tensen CP, Flier J, Rampersad SS, Sampat-Sardjoepersad S, Scheper RJ, Boorsma DM, Willemze R: Genomic organization, sequence and transcriptional regulation of the human CXCL 11(1) gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Jul 7;1446(1-2):167-72. [PubMed:10395932 ]
  8. Erdel M, Laich A, Utermann G, Werner ER, Werner-Felmayer G: The human gene encoding SCYB9B, a putative novel CXC chemokine, maps to human chromosome 4q21 like the closely related genes for MIG (SCYB9) and INP10 (SCYB10). Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1998;81(3-4):271-2. [PubMed:9730616 ]
  9. Loos T, Mortier A, Gouwy M, Ronsse I, Put W, Lenaerts JP, Van Damme J, Proost P: Citrullination of CXCL10 and CXCL11 by peptidylarginine deiminase: a naturally occurring posttranslational modification of chemokines and new dimension of immunoregulation. Blood. 2008 Oct 1;112(7):2648-56. doi: 10.1182/blood-2008-04-149039. Epub 2008 Jul 21. [PubMed:18645041 ]
  10. Booth V, Clark-Lewis I, Sykes BD: NMR structure of CXCR3 binding chemokine CXCL11 (ITAC). Protein Sci. 2004 Aug;13(8):2022-8. [PubMed:15273303 ]