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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP07955
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 13666
Name E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase parkin
Synonyms
  1. Parkinson disease protein 2
  2. Parkinson juvenile disease protein 2
Gene Name PARK2
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in acid-amino acid ligase activity
Specific Function Functions within a multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, catalyzing the covalent attachment of ubiquitin moieties onto substrate proteins. These substrates include SYT11, CCNE1, GPR37, STUB1, a 22 kDa O-linked glycosylated isoform of SNCAIP, SEPT5 and AIMP2. May play a more general role in the ubiquitin proteasomal pathway by participating in the removal and/or detoxification of abnormally folded or damaged protein. Limits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Loss of this ubiquitin ligase activity appears to be the mechanism underlying pathogenesis of PARK2. May protect neurons against alpha synuclein toxicity, proteasomal dysfunction, GPR37 accumulation, and kainate-induced excitotoxicity. May play a role in controlling neurotransmitter trafficking at the presynaptic terminal and in calcium-dependent exocytosis. Regulates cyclin E during neuronal apoptosis. May represent a tumor suppressor gene
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Function
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
catalytic activity
transition metal ion binding
zinc ion binding
ligase activity
ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds
acid-amino acid ligase activity
Cellular Location
  1. Nucleus
  2. Cytoplasm
  3. Endoplasmic reticulum
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:6
Locus 6q25.2-q27
SNPs PARK2
Gene Sequence
>1398 bp
ATGATAGTGTTTGTCAGGTTCAACTCCAGCCATGGTTTCCCAGTGGAGGTCGATTCTGAC
ACCAGCATCTTCCAGCTCAAGGAGGTGGTTGCTAAGCGACAGGGGGTTCCGGCTGACCAG
TTGCGTGTGATTTTCGCAGGGAAGGAGCTGAGGAATGACTGGACTGTGCAGAATTGTGAC
CTGGATCAGCAGAGCATTGTTCACATTGTGCAGAGACCGTGGAGAAAAGGTCAAGAAATG
AATGCAACTGGAGGCGACGACCCCAGAAACGCGGCGGGAGGCTGTGAGCGGGAGCCCCAG
AGCTTGACTCGGGTGGACCTCAGCAGCTCAGTCCTCCCAGGAGACTCTGTGGGGCTGGCT
GTCATTCTGCACACTGACAGCAGGAAGGACTCACCACCAGCTGGAAGTCCAGCAGGTAGA
TCAATCTACAACAGCTTTTATGTGTATTGCAAAGGCCCCTGTCAAAGAGTGCAGCCGGGA
AAACTCAGGGTACAGTGCAGCACCTGCAGGCAGGCAACGCTCACCTTGACCCAGGGTCCA
TCTTGCTGGGATGATGTTTTAATTCCAAACCGGATGAGTGGTGAATGCCAATCCCCACAC
TGCCCTGGGACTAGTGCAGAATTTTTCTTTAAATGTGGAGCACACCCCACCTCTGACAAG
GAAACACCAGTAGCTTTGCACCTGATCGCAACAAATAGTCGGAACATCACTTGCATTACG
TGCACAGACGTCAGGAGCCCCGTCCTGGTTTTCCAGTGCAACTCCCGCCACGTGATTTGC
TTAGACTGTTTCCACTTATACTGTGTGACAAGACTCAATGATCGGCAGTTTGTTCACGAC
CCTCAACTTGGCTACTCCCTGCCTTGTGTGGCTGGCTGTCCCAACTCCTTGATTAAAGAG
CTCCATCACTTCAGGATTCTGGGAGAAGAGCAGTACAACCGGTACCAGCAGTATGGTGCA
GAGGAGTGTGTCCTGCAGATGGGGGGCGTGTTATGCCCCCGCCCTGGCTGTGGAGCGGGG
CTGCTGCCGGAGCCTGACCAGAGGAAAGTCACCTGCGAAGGGGGCAATGGCCTGGGCTGT
GGGTTTGCCTTCTGCCGGGAATGTAAAGAAGCGTACCATGAAGGGGAGTGCAGTGCCGTA
TTTGAAGCCTCAGGAACAACTACTCAGGCCTACAGAGTCGATGAAAGAGCCGCCGAGCAG
GCTCGTTGGGAAGCAGCCTCCAAAGAAACCATCAAGAAAACCACCAAGCCCTGTCCCCGC
TGCCATGTACCAGTGGAAAAAAATGGAGGCTGCATGCACATGAAGTGTCCGCAGCCCCAG
TGCAGGCTCGAGTGGTGCTGGAACTGTGGCTGCGAGTGGAACCGCGTCTGCATGGGGGAC
CACTGGTTCGACGTGTAG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 465
Molecular Weight 51640.3
Theoretical pI 7.06
Pfam Domain Function
Signals
  • None
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
>E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase parkin
MIVFVRFNSSHGFPVEVDSDTSIFQLKEVVAKRQGVPADQLRVIFAGKELRNDWTVQNCD
LDQQSIVHIVQRPWRKGQEMNATGGDDPRNAAGGCEREPQSLTRVDLSSSVLPGDSVGLA
VILHTDSRKDSPPAGSPAGRSIYNSFYVYCKGPCQRVQPGKLRVQCSTCRQATLTLTQGP
SCWDDVLIPNRMSGECQSPHCPGTSAEFFFKCGAHPTSDKETSVALHLIATNSRNITCIT
CTDVRSPVLVFQCNSRHVICLDCFHLYCVTRLNDRQFVHDPQLGYSLPCVAGCPNSLIKE
LHHFRILGEEQYNRYQQYGAEECVLQMGGVLCPRPGCGAGLLPEPDQRKVTCEGGNGLGC
GFAFCRECKEAYHEGECSAVFEASGTTTQAYRVDERAAEQARWEAASKETIKKTTKPCPR
CHVPVEKNGGCMHMKCPQPQCRLEWCWNCGCEWNRVCMGDHWFDV
GenBank ID Protein 3063388
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID O60260
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PRKN2_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AB009973
GeneCard ID PARK2
GenAtlas ID PARK2
HGNC ID HGNC:8607
References
General References
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  4. Shimura H, Hattori N, Kubo Si, Mizuno Y, Asakawa S, Minoshima S, Shimizu N, Iwai K, Chiba T, Tanaka K, Suzuki T: Familial Parkinson disease gene product, parkin, is a ubiquitin-protein ligase. Nat Genet. 2000 Jul;25(3):302-5. [PubMed:10888878 ]
  5. Kitada T, Asakawa S, Hattori N, Matsumine H, Yamamura Y, Minoshima S, Yokochi M, Mizuno Y, Shimizu N: Mutations in the parkin gene cause autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism. Nature. 1998 Apr 9;392(6676):605-8. [PubMed:9560156 ]
  6. Kasap M, Akpinar G, Sazci A, Idrisoglu HA, Vahaboglu H: Evidence for the presence of full-length PARK2 mRNA and Parkin protein in human blood. Neurosci Lett. 2009 Sep 4;460(3):196-200. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.05.079. Epub 2009 Jun 6. [PubMed:19501131 ]
  7. Shimura H, Hattori N, Kubo S, Yoshikawa M, Kitada T, Matsumine H, Asakawa S, Minoshima S, Yamamura Y, Shimizu N, Mizuno Y: Immunohistochemical and subcellular localization of Parkin protein: absence of protein in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism patients. Ann Neurol. 1999 May;45(5):668-72. [PubMed:10319893 ]
  8. Imai Y, Soda M, Takahashi R: Parkin suppresses unfolded protein stress-induced cell death through its E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. J Biol Chem. 2000 Nov 17;275(46):35661-4. [PubMed:10973942 ]
  9. Zhang Y, Gao J, Chung KK, Huang H, Dawson VL, Dawson TM: Parkin functions as an E2-dependent ubiquitin- protein ligase and promotes the degradation of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein, CDCrel-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Nov 21;97(24):13354-9. [PubMed:11078524 ]
  10. Imai Y, Soda M, Inoue H, Hattori N, Mizuno Y, Takahashi R: An unfolded putative transmembrane polypeptide, which can lead to endoplasmic reticulum stress, is a substrate of Parkin. Cell. 2001 Jun 29;105(7):891-902. [PubMed:11439185 ]
  11. Chung KK, Zhang Y, Lim KL, Tanaka Y, Huang H, Gao J, Ross CA, Dawson VL, Dawson TM: Parkin ubiquitinates the alpha-synuclein-interacting protein, synphilin-1: implications for Lewy-body formation in Parkinson disease. Nat Med. 2001 Oct;7(10):1144-50. [PubMed:11590439 ]
  12. Shimura H, Schlossmacher MG, Hattori N, Frosch MP, Trockenbacher A, Schneider R, Mizuno Y, Kosik KS, Selkoe DJ: Ubiquitination of a new form of alpha-synuclein by parkin from human brain: implications for Parkinson's disease. Science. 2001 Jul 13;293(5528):263-9. Epub 2001 Jun 28. [PubMed:11431533 ]
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  14. Imai Y, Soda M, Hatakeyama S, Akagi T, Hashikawa T, Nakayama KI, Takahashi R: CHIP is associated with Parkin, a gene responsible for familial Parkinson's disease, and enhances its ubiquitin ligase activity. Mol Cell. 2002 Jul;10(1):55-67. [PubMed:12150907 ]
  15. Huynh DP, Scoles DR, Nguyen D, Pulst SM: The autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson disease gene product, parkin, interacts with and ubiquitinates synaptotagmin XI. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Oct 15;12(20):2587-97. Epub 2003 Aug 12. [PubMed:12925569 ]
  16. Imai Y, Soda M, Murakami T, Shoji M, Abe K, Takahashi R: A product of the human gene adjacent to parkin is a component of Lewy bodies and suppresses Pael receptor-induced cell death. J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 19;278(51):51901-10. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14532270 ]
  17. Staropoli JF, McDermott C, Martinat C, Schulman B, Demireva E, Abeliovich A: Parkin is a component of an SCF-like ubiquitin ligase complex and protects postmitotic neurons from kainate excitotoxicity. Neuron. 2003 Mar 6;37(5):735-49. [PubMed:12628165 ]
  18. Denison SR, Wang F, Becker NA, Schule B, Kock N, Phillips LA, Klein C, Smith DI: Alterations in the common fragile site gene Parkin in ovarian and other cancers. Oncogene. 2003 Nov 13;22(51):8370-8. [PubMed:14614460 ]
  19. Cesari R, Martin ES, Calin GA, Pentimalli F, Bichi R, McAdams H, Trapasso F, Drusco A, Shimizu M, Masciullo V, D'Andrilli G, Scambia G, Picchio MC, Alder H, Godwin AK, Croce CM: Parkin, a gene implicated in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism, is a candidate tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 6q25-q27. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 May 13;100(10):5956-61. Epub 2003 Apr 28. [PubMed:12719539 ]
  20. Kahle PJ, Haass C: How does parkin ligate ubiquitin to Parkinson's disease? EMBO Rep. 2004 Jul;5(7):681-5. [PubMed:15229644 ]
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  22. Dachsel JC, Lucking CB, Deeg S, Schultz E, Lalowski M, Casademunt E, Corti O, Hampe C, Patenge N, Vaupel K, Yamamoto A, Dichgans M, Brice A, Wanker EE, Kahle PJ, Gasser T: Parkin interacts with the proteasome subunit alpha4. FEBS Lett. 2005 Jul 18;579(18):3913-9. [PubMed:15987638 ]
  23. Ko HS, von Coelln R, Sriram SR, Kim SW, Chung KK, Pletnikova O, Troncoso J, Johnson B, Saffary R, Goh EL, Song H, Park BJ, Kim MJ, Kim S, Dawson VL, Dawson TM: Accumulation of the authentic parkin substrate aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase cofactor, p38/JTV-1, leads to catecholaminergic cell death. J Neurosci. 2005 Aug 31;25(35):7968-78. [PubMed:16135753 ]
  24. Smith WW, Pei Z, Jiang H, Moore DJ, Liang Y, West AB, Dawson VL, Dawson TM, Ross CA: Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) interacts with parkin, and mutant LRRK2 induces neuronal degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 20;102(51):18676-81. Epub 2005 Dec 13. [PubMed:16352719 ]
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  47. Foroud T, Uniacke SK, Liu L, Pankratz N, Rudolph A, Halter C, Shults C, Marder K, Conneally PM, Nichols WC: Heterozygosity for a mutation in the parkin gene leads to later onset Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2003 Mar 11;60(5):796-801. [PubMed:12629236 ]
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