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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP08177
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 13888
Name Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
Synonyms
  1. ACE-related carboxypeptidase
  2. ACEH
  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme homolog
  4. Metalloprotease MPROT15
  5. Processed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
Gene Name ACE2
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in metallopeptidase activity
Specific Function Carboxypeptidase which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a peptide of unknown function, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, a vasodilator. Also able to hydrolyze apelin-13 and dynorphin-13 with high efficiency. May be an important regulator of heart function. In case of human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63 infections, serve as functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of both coronaviruses.
Pathways
  • Protein digestion and absorption
  • Renin-angiotensin system
Reactions
Angiotensin II + Water → angiotensin-(1-7) + L-Phenylalanine details
GO Classification
Biological Process
angiotensin catabolic process in blood
angiotensin-mediated drinking behavior
positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process
receptor biosynthetic process
regulation of cell proliferation
regulation of cytokine production
regulation of inflammatory response
regulation of vasoconstriction
regulation of vasodilation
viral entry into host cell
virion attachment, binding of host cell surface receptor
proteolysis
Cellular Component
cell surface
membrane raft
plasma membrane
extracellular space
integral to membrane
Component
membrane
cell part
Function
exopeptidase activity
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
peptidyl-dipeptidase activity
peptidase activity
peptidase activity, acting on l-amino acid peptides
metallopeptidase activity
Molecular Function
carboxypeptidase activity
endopeptidase activity
viral receptor activity
metal ion binding
zinc ion binding
Process
metabolic process
macromolecule metabolic process
protein metabolic process
proteolysis
Cellular Location
  1. Cell membrane
  2. Single-pass type I membrane protein
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location X
Locus Xp22
SNPs ACE2
Gene Sequence
>2418 bp
ATGTCAAGCTCTTCCTGGCTCCTTCTCAGCCTTGTTGCTGTAACTGCTGCTCAGTCCACC
ATTGAGGAACAGGCCAAGACATTTTTGGACAAGTTTAACCACGAAGCCGAAGACCTGTTC
TATCAAAGTTCACTTGCTTCTTGGAATTATAACACCAATATTACTGAAGAGAATGTCCAA
AACATGAATAATGCTGGGGACAAATGGTCTGCCTTTTTAAAGGAACAGTCCACACTTGCC
CAAATGTATCCACTACAAGAAATTCAGAATCTCACAGTCAAGCTTCAGCTGCAGGCTCTT
CAGCAAAATGGGTCTTCAGTGCTCTCAGAAGACAAGAGCAAACGGTTGAACACAATTCTA
AATACAATGAGCACCATCTACAGTACTGGAAAAGTTTGTAACCCAGATAATCCACAAGAA
TGCTTATTACTTGAACCAGGTTTGAATGAAATAATGGCAAACAGTTTAGACTACAATGAG
AGGCTCTGGGCTTGGGAAAGCTGGAGATCTGAGGTCGGCAAGCAGCTGAGGCCATTATAT
GAAGAGTATGTGGTCTTGAAAAATGAGATGGCAAGAGCAAATCATTATGAGGACTATGGG
GATTATTGGAGAGGAGACTATGAAGTAAATGGGGTAGATGGCTATGACTACAGCCGCGGC
CAGTTGATTGAAGATGTGGAACATACCTTTGAAGAGATTAAACCATTATATGAACATCTT
CATGCCTATGTGAGGGCAAAGTTGATGAATGCCTATCCTTCCTATATCAGTCCAATTGGA
TGCCTCCCTGCTCATTTGCTTGGTGATATGTGGGGTAGATTTTGGACAAATCTGTACTCT
TTGACAGTTCCCTTTGGACAGAAACCAAACATAGATGTTACTGATGCAATGGTGGACCAG
GCCTGGGATGCACAGAGAATATTCAAGGAGGCCGAGAAGTTCTTTGTATCTGTTGGTCTT
CCTAATATGACTCAAGGATTCTGGGAAAATTCCATGCTAACGGACCCAGGAAATGTTCAG
AAAGCAGTCTGCCATCCCACAGCTTGGGACCTGGGGAAGGGCGACTTCAGGATCCTTATG
TGCACAAAGGTGACAATGGACGACTTCCTGACAGCTCATCATGAGATGGGGCATATCCAG
TATGATATGGCATATGCTGCACAACCTTTTCTGCTAAGAAATGGAGCTAATGAAGGATTC
CATGAAGCTGTTGGGGAAATCATGTCACTTTCTGCAGCCACACCTAAGCATTTAAAATCC
ATTGGTCTTCTGTCACCCGATTTTCAAGAAGACAATGAAACAGAAATAAACTTCCTGCTC
AAACAAGCACTCACGATTGTTGGGACTCTGCCATTTACTTACATGTTAGAGAAGTGGAGG
TGGATGGTCTTTAAAGGGGAAATTCCCAAAGACCAGTGGATGAAAAAGTGGTGGGAGATG
AAGCGAGAGATAGTTGGGGTGGTGGAACCTGTGCCCCATGATGAAACATACTGTGACCCC
GCATCTCTGTTCCATGTTTCTAATGATTACTCATTCATTCGATATTACACAAGGACCCTT
TACCAATTCCAGTTTCAAGAAGCACTTTGTCAAGCAGCTAAACATGAAGGCCCTCTGCAC
AAATGTGACATCTCAAACTCTACAGAAGCTGGACAGAAACTGTTCAATATGCTGAGGCTT
GGAAAATCAGAACCCTGGACCCTAGCATTGGAAAATGTTGTAGGAGCAAAGAACATGAAT
GTAAGGCCACTGCTCAACTACTTTGAGCCCTTATTTACCTGGCTGAAAGACCAGAACAAG
AATTCTTTTGTGGGATGGAGTACCGACTGGAGTCCATATGCAGACCAAAGCATCAAAGTG
AGGATAAGCCTAAAATCAGCTCTTGGAGATAAAGCATATGAATGGAACGACAATGAAATG
TACCTGTTCCGATCATCTGTTGCATATGCTATGAGGCAGTACTTTTTAAAAGTAAAAAAT
CAGATGATTCTTTTTGGGGAGGAGGATGTGCGAGTGGCTAATTTGAAACCAAGAATCTCC
TTTAATTTCTTTGTCACTGCACCTAAAAATGTGTCTGATATCATTCCTAGAACTGAAGTT
GAAAAGGCCATCAGGATGTCCCGGAGCCGTATCAATGATGCTTTCCGTCTGAATGACAAC
AGCCTAGAGTTTCTGGGGATACAGCCAACACTTGGACCTCCTAACCAGCCCCCTGTTTCC
ATATGGCTGATTGTTTTTGGAGTTGTGATGGGAGTGATAGTGGTTGGCATTGTCATCCTG
ATCTTCACTGGGATCAGAGATCGGAAGAAGAAAAATAAAGCAAGAAGTGGAGAAAATCCT
TATGCCTCCATCGATATTAGCAAAGGAGAAAATAATCCAGGATTCCAAAACACTGATGAT
GTTCAGACCTCCTTTTAG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 805
Molecular Weight 92462.4
Theoretical pI 5.545
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
MSSSSWLLLSLVAVTAAQSTIEEQAKTFLDKFNHEAEDLFYQSSLASWNYNTNITEENVQ
NMNNAGDKWSAFLKEQSTLAQMYPLQEIQNLTVKLQLQALQQNGSSVLSEDKSKRLNTIL
NTMSTIYSTGKVCNPDNPQECLLLEPGLNEIMANSLDYNERLWAWESWRSEVGKQLRPLY
EEYVVLKNEMARANHYEDYGDYWRGDYEVNGVDGYDYSRGQLIEDVEHTFEEIKPLYEHL
HAYVRAKLMNAYPSYISPIGCLPAHLLGDMWGRFWTNLYSLTVPFGQKPNIDVTDAMVDQ
AWDAQRIFKEAEKFFVSVGLPNMTQGFWENSMLTDPGNVQKAVCHPTAWDLGKGDFRILM
CTKVTMDDFLTAHHEMGHIQYDMAYAAQPFLLRNGANEGFHEAVGEIMSLSAATPKHLKS
IGLLSPDFQEDNETEINFLLKQALTIVGTLPFTYMLEKWRWMVFKGEIPKDQWMKKWWEM
KREIVGVVEPVPHDETYCDPASLFHVSNDYSFIRYYTRTLYQFQFQEALCQAAKHEGPLH
KCDISNSTEAGQKLFNMLRLGKSEPWTLALENVVGAKNMNVRPLLNYFEPLFTWLKDQNK
NSFVGWSTDWSPYADQSIKVRISLKSALGDKAYEWNDNEMYLFRSSVAYAMRQYFLKVKN
QMILFGEEDVRVANLKPRISFNFFVTAPKNVSDIIPRTEVEKAIRMSRSRINDAFRLNDN
SLEFLGIQPTLGPPNQPPVSIWLIVFGVVMGVIVVGIVILIFTGIRDRKKKNKARSGENP
YASIDISKGENNPGFQNTDDVQTSF
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q9BYF1
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ACE2_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AF291820
GeneCard ID ACE2
GenAtlas ID ACE2
HGNC ID HGNC:13557
References
General References
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  6. Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, Stagliano N, Donovan M, Woolf B, Robison K, Jeyaseelan R, Breitbart RE, Acton S: A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9. Circ Res. 2000 Sep 1;87(5):E1-9. [PubMed:10969042 ]
  7. Tipnis SR, Hooper NM, Hyde R, Karran E, Christie G, Turner AJ: A human homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Cloning and functional expression as a captopril-insensitive carboxypeptidase. J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 27;275(43):33238-43. [PubMed:10924499 ]
  8. Harmer D, Gilbert M, Borman R, Clark KL: Quantitative mRNA expression profiling of ACE 2, a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme. FEBS Lett. 2002 Dec 4;532(1-2):107-10. [PubMed:12459472 ]
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  10. Burrell LM, Risvanis J, Kubota E, Dean RG, MacDonald PS, Lu S, Tikellis C, Grant SL, Lew RA, Smith AI, Cooper ME, Johnston CI: Myocardial infarction increases ACE2 expression in rat and humans. Eur Heart J. 2005 Feb;26(4):369-75; discussion 322-4. Epub 2005 Jan 25. [PubMed:15671045 ]
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  13. Itoyama S, Keicho N, Hijikata M, Quy T, Phi NC, Long HT, Ha LD, Ban VV, Matsushita I, Yanai H, Kirikae F, Kirikae T, Kuratsuji T, Sasazuki T: Identification of an alternative 5'-untranslated exon and new polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene: lack of association with SARS in the Vietnamese population. Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Jul 1;136(1):52-7. [PubMed:15937940 ]
  14. Lin Q, Keller RS, Weaver B, Zisman LS: Interaction of ACE2 and integrin beta1 in failing human heart. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Aug 4;1689(3):175-8. [PubMed:15276642 ]
  15. Li W, Moore MJ, Vasilieva N, Sui J, Wong SK, Berne MA, Somasundaran M, Sullivan JL, Luzuriaga K, Greenough TC, Choe H, Farzan M: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. Nature. 2003 Nov 27;426(6965):450-4. [PubMed:14647384 ]
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  17. Li W, Greenough TC, Moore MJ, Vasilieva N, Somasundaran M, Sullivan JL, Farzan M, Choe H: Efficient replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in mouse cells is limited by murine angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. J Virol. 2004 Oct;78(20):11429-33. [PubMed:15452268 ]
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