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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP08834
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 14559
Name Werner syndrome ATP-dependent helicase
Synonyms
  1. DNA helicase, RecQ-like type 3
  2. Exonuclease WRN
  3. RecQ protein-like 2
  4. RecQ3
Gene Name WRN
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in nucleic acid binding
Specific Function Multifunctional enzyme that has both magnesium and ATP-dependent DNA-helicase activity and 3'->5' exonuclease activity towards double-stranded DNA with a 5'-overhang. Has no nuclease activity towards single-stranded DNA or blunt-ended double-stranded DNA. Binds preferentially to DNA substrates containing alternate secondary structures, such as replication forks and Holliday junctions. May play an important role in the dissociation of joint DNA molecules that can arise as products of homologous recombination, at stalled replication forks or during DNA repair. Alleviates stalling of DNA polymerases at the site of DNA lesions. Important for genomic integrity. Plays a role in the formation of DNA replication focal centers; stably associates with foci elements generating binding sites for RP-A (By similarity).
Pathways Not Available
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Water → ADP + Phosphate details
GO Classification
Biological Process
multicellular organismal aging
response to oxidative stress
replication fork processing
telomere maintenance
DNA synthesis involved in DNA repair
cell aging
base-excision repair
regulation of apoptotic process
cellular response to starvation
regulation of growth rate
response to UV-C
nucleolus to nucleoplasm transport
positive regulation of hydrolase activity
replicative cell aging
DNA recombination
Cellular Component
centrosome
nucleolus
nucleoplasm
Component
cell part
intracellular
Function
hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
binding
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
nucleoside binding
purine nucleoside binding
adenyl nucleotide binding
adenyl ribonucleotide binding
atp binding
atp-dependent helicase activity
dna helicase activity
atp-dependent dna helicase activity
exonuclease activity
3'-5' exonuclease activity
atpase activity
atpase activity, coupled
nucleic acid binding
atp-dependent 3'-5' dna helicase activity
nucleoside-triphosphatase activity
helicase activity
nuclease activity
hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides
hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides, in phosphorus-containing anhydrides
pyrophosphatase activity
Molecular Function
ATP-dependent 3'-5' DNA helicase activity
manganese ion binding
magnesium ion binding
ATP binding
ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity
bubble DNA binding
four-way junction helicase activity
G-quadruplex DNA binding
3'-5' exonuclease activity
3'-5' DNA helicase activity
protein homodimerization activity
protein complex binding
Y-form DNA binding
Process
metabolic process
nitrogen compound metabolic process
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
nucleobase, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolic process
macromolecule metabolic process
cellular macromolecule metabolic process
dna metabolic process
dna replication
dna recombination
dna repair
Cellular Location
  1. Nucleus
  2. Nucleus
  3. nucleolus
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 8
Locus 8p12
SNPs WRN
Gene Sequence
>4299 bp
ATGAGTGAAAAAAAATTGGAAACAACTGCACAGCAGCGGAAATGTCCTGAATGGATGAAT
GTGCAGAATAAAAGATGTGCTGTAGAAGAAAGAAAGGCATGTGTTCGGAAGAGTGTTTTT
GAAGATGACCTCCCCTTCTTAGAATTCACTGGATCCATTGTGTATAGTTACGATGCTAGT
GATTGCTCTTTCCTGTCAGAAGATATTAGCATGAGTCTATCAGATGGGGATGTGGTGGGA
TTTGACATGGAGTGGCCACCATTATACAATAGAGGGAAACTTGGCAAAGTTGCACTAATT
CAGTTGTGTGTTTCTGAGAGCAAATGTTACTTGTTCCACGTTTCTTCCATGTCAGTTTTT
CCCCAGGGATTAAAAATGTTGCTTGAAAATAAAGCAGTTAAAAAGGCAGGTGTAGGAATT
GAAGGAGATCAGTGGAAACTTCTACGTGACTTTGATATCAAATTGAAGAATTTTGTGGAG
TTGACAGATGTTGCCAATAAAAAGCTGAAATGTACAGAGACCTGGAGCCTTAACAGTCTG
GTTAAACACCTCTTAGGTAAACAGCTCCTGAAAGACAAGTCTATCCGCTGTAGCAATTGG
AGTAAATTTCCTCTCACTGAGGACCAGAAACTGTATGCAGCCACTGATGCTTATGCTGGT
TTTATTATTTACCGAAATTTAGAGATTTTGGATGATACTGTGCAAAGGTTTGCTATAAAT
AAAGAGGAAGAAATCCTACTTAGCGACATGAACAAACAGTTGACTTCAATCTCTGAGGAA
GTGATGGATCTGGCTAAGCATCTTCCTCATGCTTTCAGTAAATTGGAAAACCCACGGAGG
GTTTCTATCTTACTAAAGGATATTTCAGAAAATCTATATTCACTGAGGAGGATGATAATT
GGGTCTACTAACATTGAGACTGAACTGAGGCCCAGCAATAATTTAAACTTATTATCCTTT
GAAGATTCAACTACTGGGGGAGTACAACAGAAACAAATTAGAGAACATGAAGTTTTAATT
CACGTTGAAGATGAAACATGGGACCCAACACTTGATCATTTAGCTAAACATGATGGAGAA
GATGTACTTGGAAATAAAGTGGAACGAAAAGAAGATGGATTTGAAGATGGAGTAGAAGAC
AACAAATTGAAAGAGAATATGGAAAGAGCTTGTTTGATGTCGTTAGATATTACAGAACAT
GAACTCCAAATTTTGGAACAGCAGTCTCAGGAAGAATATCTTAGTGATATTGCTTATAAA
TCTACTGAGCATTTATCTCCCAATGATAATGAAAACGATACGTCCTATGTAATTGAGAGT
GATGAAGATTTAGAAATGGAGATGCTTAAGCATTTATCTCCCAATGATAATGAAAACGAT
ACGTCCTATGTAATTGAGAGTGATGAAGATTTAGAAATGGAGATGCTTAAGTCTTTAGAA
AACCTCAATAGTGGCACGGTAGAACCAACTCATTCTAAATGCTTAAAAATGGAAAGAAAT
CTGGGTCTTCCTACTAAAGAAGAAGAAGAAGATGATGAAAATGAAGCTAATGAAGGGGAA
GAAGATGATGATAAGGACTTTTTGTGGCCAGCACCCAATGAAGAGCAAGTTACTTGCCTC
AAGATGTACTTTGGCCATTCCAGTTTTAAACCAGTTCAGTGGAAAGTGATTCATTCAGTA
TTAGAAGAAAGAAGAGATAATGTTGCTGTCATGGCAACTGGATATGGAAAGAGTTTGTGC
TTCCAGTATCCACCTGTTTATGTAGGCAAGATTGGCCTTGTTATCTCTCCCCTTATTTCT
CTGATGGAAGACCAAGTGCTACAGCTTAAAATGTCCAACATCCCAGCTTGCTTCCTTGGA
TCAGCACAGTCAGAAAATGTTCTAACAGATATTAAATTAGGTAAATACCGGATTGTATAC
GTAACTCCAGAATACTGTTCAGGTAACATGGGCCTGCTCCAGCAACTTGAGGCTGATATT
GGTATCACGCTCATTGCTGTGGATGAGGCTCACTGTATTTCTGAGTGGGGGCATGATTTT
AGGGATTCATTCAGGAAGTTGGGCTCCCTAAAGACAGCACTGCCAATGGTTCCAATCGTT
GCACTTACTGCTACTGCAAGTTCTTCAATCCGGGAAGACATTGTACGTTGCTTAAATCTG
AGAAATCCTCAGATCACCTGTACTGGTTTTGATCGACCAAACCTGTATTTAGAAGTTAGG
CGAAAAACAGGGAATATCCTTCAGGATCTGCAGCCATTTCTTGTCAAAACAAGTTCCCAC
TGGGAATTTGAAGGTCCAACAATCATCTACTGTCCTTCTAGAAAAATGACACAACAAGTT
ACAGGTGAACTTAGGAAACTTAATCTATCCTGTGGAACATACCATGCGGGCATGAGTTTT
AGCACAAGGAAAGACATTCATCATAGGTTTGTAAGAGATGAAATTCAGTGTGTCATAGCT
ACCATAGCTTTTGGAATGGGCATTAATAAAGCTGACATTCGCCAAGTCATTCATTACGGT
GCTCCTAAGGACATGGAATCATATTATCAGGAGATTGGTAGAGCTGGTCGTGATGGACTT
CAAAGTTCTTGTCACGTCCTCTGGGCTCCTGCAGACATTAACTTAAATAGGCACCTTCTT
ACTGAGATACGTAATGAGAAGTTTCGATTATACAAATTAAAGATGATGGCAAAGATGGAA
AAATATCTTCATTCTAGCAGATGTAGGAGACAAATCATCTTGTCTCATTTTGAGGACAAA
CAAGTACAAAAAGCCTCCTTGGGAATTATGGGAACTGAAAAATGCTGTGATAATTGCAGG
TCCAGATTGGATCATTGCTATTCCATGGATGACTCAGAGGATACATCCTGGGACTTTGGT
CCACAAGCATTTAAGCTTTTGTCTGCTGTGGACATCTTAGGCGAAAAATTTGGAATTGGG
CTTCCAATTTTATTTCTCCGAGGATCTAATTCTCAGCGTCTTGCCGATCAATATCGCAGG
CACAGTTTATTTGGCACTGGCAAGGATCAAACAGAGAGTTGGTGGAAGGCTTTTTCCCGT
CAGCTGATCACTGAGGGATTCTTGGTAGAAGTTTCTCGGTATAACAAATTTATGAAGATT
TGCGCCCTTACGAAAAAGGGTAGAAATTGGCTTCATAAAGCTAATACAGAATCTCAGAGC
CTCATCCTTCAAGCTAATGAAGAATTGTGTCCAAAGAAGTTTCTTCTGCCTAGTTCGAAA
ACTGTATCTTCGGGCACCAAAGAGCATTGTTATAATCAAGTACCAGTTGAATTAAGTACA
GAGAAGAAGTCTAACTTGGAGAAGTTATATTCTTATAAACCATGTGATAAGATTTCTTCT
GGGAGTAACATTTCTAAAAAAAGTATCATGGTACAGTCACCAGAAAAAGCTTACAGTTCC
TCACAGCCTGTTATTTCGGCACAAGAGCAGGAGACTCAGATTGTGTTATATGGCAAATTG
GTAGAAGCTAGGCAGAAACATGCCAATAAAATGGATGTTCCCCCAGCTATTCTGGCAACA
AACAAGATACTGGTGGATATGGCCAAAATGAGACCAACTACGGTTGAAAACGTAAAAAGG
ATTGATGGTGTTTCTGAAGGCAAAGCTGCCATGTTGGCCCCTCTGTTGGAAGTCATCAAA
CATTTCTGCCAAACAAATAGTGTTCAGACAGACCTCTTTTCAAGTACAAAACCTCAAGAA
GAACAGAAGACGAGTCTGGTAGCAAAAAATAAAATATGCACACTTTCACAGTCTATGGCC
ATCACATACTCTTTATTCCAAGAAAAGAAGATGCCTTTGAAGAGCATAGCTGAGAGCAGG
ATTCTGCCTCTCATGACAATTGGCATGCACTTATCCCAAGCGGTGAAAGCTGGCTGCCCC
CTTGATTTGGAGCGAGCAGGCCTGACTCCAGAGGTTCAGAAGATTATTGCTGATGTTATC
CGAAACCCTCCCGTCAACTCAGATATGAGTAAAATTAGCCTAATCAGAATGTTAGTTCCT
GAAAACATTGACACGTACCTTATCCACATGGCAATTGAGATCCTTAAACATGGTCCTGAC
AGCGGACTTCAACCTTCATGTGATGTCAACAAAAGGAGATGTTTTCCCGGTTCTGAAGAG
ATCTGTTCAAGTTCTAAGAGAAGCAAGGAAGAAGTAGGCATCAATACTGAGACTTCATCT
GCAGAGAGAAAGAGACGATTACCTGTGTGGTTTGCCAAAGGAAGTGATACCAGCAAGAAA
TTAATGGACAAAACGAAAAGGGGAGGTCTTTTTAGTTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 1432
Molecular Weight 162459.405
Theoretical pI 6.345
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Werner syndrome ATP-dependent helicase
MSEKKLETTAQQRKCPEWMNVQNKRCAVEERKACVRKSVFEDDLPFLEFTGSIVYSYDAS
DCSFLSEDISMSLSDGDVVGFDMEWPPLYNRGKLGKVALIQLCVSESKCYLFHVSSMSVF
PQGLKMLLENKAVKKAGVGIEGDQWKLLRDFDIKLKNFVELTDVANKKLKCTETWSLNSL
VKHLLGKQLLKDKSIRCSNWSKFPLTEDQKLYAATDAYAGFIIYRNLEILDDTVQRFAIN
KEEEILLSDMNKQLTSISEEVMDLAKHLPHAFSKLENPRRVSILLKDISENLYSLRRMII
GSTNIETELRPSNNLNLLSFEDSTTGGVQQKQIREHEVLIHVEDETWDPTLDHLAKHDGE
DVLGNKVERKEDGFEDGVEDNKLKENMERACLMSLDITEHELQILEQQSQEEYLSDIAYK
STEHLSPNDNENDTSYVIESDEDLEMEMLKHLSPNDNENDTSYVIESDEDLEMEMLKSLE
NLNSGTVEPTHSKCLKMERNLGLPTKEEEEDDENEANEGEEDDDKDFLWPAPNEEQVTCL
KMYFGHSSFKPVQWKVIHSVLEERRDNVAVMATGYGKSLCFQYPPVYVGKIGLVISPLIS
LMEDQVLQLKMSNIPACFLGSAQSENVLTDIKLGKYRIVYVTPEYCSGNMGLLQQLEADI
GITLIAVDEAHCISEWGHDFRDSFRKLGSLKTALPMVPIVALTATASSSIREDIVRCLNL
RNPQITCTGFDRPNLYLEVRRKTGNILQDLQPFLVKTSSHWEFEGPTIIYCPSRKMTQQV
TGELRKLNLSCGTYHAGMSFSTRKDIHHRFVRDEIQCVIATIAFGMGINKADIRQVIHYG
APKDMESYYQEIGRAGRDGLQSSCHVLWAPADINLNRHLLTEIRNEKFRLYKLKMMAKME
KYLHSSRCRRQIILSHFEDKQVQKASLGIMGTEKCCDNCRSRLDHCYSMDDSEDTSWDFG
PQAFKLLSAVDILGEKFGIGLPILFLRGSNSQRLADQYRRHSLFGTGKDQTESWWKAFSR
QLITEGFLVEVSRYNKFMKICALTKKGRNWLHKANTESQSLILQANEELCPKKFLLPSSK
TVSSGTKEHCYNQVPVELSTEKKSNLEKLYSYKPCDKISSGSNISKKSIMVQSPEKAYSS
SQPVISAQEQETQIVLYGKLVEARQKHANKMDVPPAILATNKILVDMAKMRPTTVENVKR
IDGVSEGKAAMLAPLLEVIKHFCQTNSVQTDLFSSTKPQEEQKTSLVAKNKICTLSQSMA
ITYSLFQEKKMPLKSIAESRILPLMTIGMHLSQAVKAGCPLDLERAGLTPEVQKIIADVI
RNPPVNSDMSKISLIRMLVPENIDTYLIHMAIEILKHGPDSGLQPSCDVNKRRCFPGSEE
ICSSSKRSKEEVGINTETSSAERKRRLPVWFAKGSDTSKKLMDKTKRGGLFS
GenBank ID Protein 3719421
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q14191
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name WRN_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AF091214
GeneCard ID WRN
GenAtlas ID WRN
HGNC ID HGNC:12791
References
General References
  1. Dephoure N, Zhou C, Villen J, Beausoleil SA, Bakalarski CE, Elledge SJ, Gygi SP: A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 5;105(31):10762-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805139105. Epub 2008 Jul 31. [PubMed:18669648 ]
  2. Mayya V, Lundgren DH, Hwang SI, Rezaul K, Wu L, Eng JK, Rodionov V, Han DK: Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions. Sci Signal. 2009 Aug 18;2(84):ra46. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2000007. [PubMed:19690332 ]
  3. Gauci S, Helbig AO, Slijper M, Krijgsveld J, Heck AJ, Mohammed S: Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. Anal Chem. 2009 Jun 1;81(11):4493-501. doi: 10.1021/ac9004309. [PubMed:19413330 ]
  4. Matsuoka S, Ballif BA, Smogorzewska A, McDonald ER 3rd, Hurov KE, Luo J, Bakalarski CE, Zhao Z, Solimini N, Lerenthal Y, Shiloh Y, Gygi SP, Elledge SJ: ATM and ATR substrate analysis reveals extensive protein networks responsive to DNA damage. Science. 2007 May 25;316(5828):1160-6. [PubMed:17525332 ]
  5. Sjoblom T, Jones S, Wood LD, Parsons DW, Lin J, Barber TD, Mandelker D, Leary RJ, Ptak J, Silliman N, Szabo S, Buckhaults P, Farrell C, Meeh P, Markowitz SD, Willis J, Dawson D, Willson JK, Gazdar AF, Hartigan J, Wu L, Liu C, Parmigiani G, Park BH, Bachman KE, Papadopoulos N, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, Velculescu VE: The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science. 2006 Oct 13;314(5797):268-74. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16959974 ]
  6. Ley TJ, Mardis ER, Ding L, Fulton B, McLellan MD, Chen K, Dooling D, Dunford-Shore BH, McGrath S, Hickenbotham M, Cook L, Abbott R, Larson DE, Koboldt DC, Pohl C, Smith S, Hawkins A, Abbott S, Locke D, Hillier LW, Miner T, Fulton L, Magrini V, Wylie T, Glasscock J, Conyers J, Sander N, Shi X, Osborne JR, Minx P, Gordon D, Chinwalla A, Zhao Y, Ries RE, Payton JE, Westervelt P, Tomasson MH, Watson M, Baty J, Ivanovich J, Heath S, Shannon WD, Nagarajan R, Walter MJ, Link DC, Graubert TA, DiPersio JF, Wilson RK: DNA sequencing of a cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia genome. Nature. 2008 Nov 6;456(7218):66-72. doi: 10.1038/nature07485. [PubMed:18987736 ]
  7. Karmakar P, Piotrowski J, Brosh RM Jr, Sommers JA, Miller SP, Cheng WH, Snowden CM, Ramsden DA, Bohr VA: Werner protein is a target of DNA-dependent protein kinase in vivo and in vitro, and its catalytic activities are regulated by phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2002 May 24;277(21):18291-302. Epub 2002 Mar 11. [PubMed:11889123 ]
  8. Yu CE, Oshima J, Fu YH, Wijsman EM, Hisama F, Alisch R, Matthews S, Nakura J, Miki T, Ouais S, Martin GM, Mulligan J, Schellenberg GD: Positional cloning of the Werner's syndrome gene. Science. 1996 Apr 12;272(5259):258-62. [PubMed:8602509 ]
  9. Agrelo R, Cheng WH, Setien F, Ropero S, Espada J, Fraga MF, Herranz M, Paz MF, Sanchez-Cespedes M, Artiga MJ, Guerrero D, Castells A, von Kobbe C, Bohr VA, Esteller M: Epigenetic inactivation of the premature aging Werner syndrome gene in human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 6;103(23):8822-7. Epub 2006 May 24. [PubMed:16723399 ]
  10. Marciniak RA, Lombard DB, Johnson FB, Guarente L: Nucleolar localization of the Werner syndrome protein in human cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jun 9;95(12):6887-92. [PubMed:9618508 ]
  11. Kusano K, Berres ME, Engels WR: Evolution of the RECQ family of helicases: A drosophila homolog, Dmblm, is similar to the human bloom syndrome gene. Genetics. 1999 Mar;151(3):1027-39. [PubMed:10049920 ]
  12. Xue Y, Ratcliff GC, Wang H, Davis-Searles PR, Gray MD, Erie DA, Redinbo MR: A minimal exonuclease domain of WRN forms a hexamer on DNA and possesses both 3'- 5' exonuclease and 5'-protruding strand endonuclease activities. Biochemistry. 2002 Mar 5;41(9):2901-12. [PubMed:11863428 ]
  13. Sharma S, Sommers JA, Driscoll HC, Uzdilla L, Wilson TM, Brosh RM Jr: The exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic cleavage activities of human exonuclease 1 are stimulated by an interaction with the carboxyl-terminal region of the Werner syndrome protein. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 27;278(26):23487-96. Epub 2003 Apr 18. [PubMed:12704184 ]
  14. Kamath-Loeb AS, Lan L, Nakajima S, Yasui A, Loeb LA: Werner syndrome protein interacts functionally with translesion DNA polymerases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 19;104(25):10394-9. Epub 2007 Jun 11. [PubMed:17563354 ]
  15. Compton SA, Tolun G, Kamath-Loeb AS, Loeb LA, Griffith JD: The Werner syndrome protein binds replication fork and holliday junction DNAs as an oligomer. J Biol Chem. 2008 Sep 5;283(36):24478-83. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M803370200. Epub 2008 Jul 2. [PubMed:18596042 ]
  16. Zecevic A, Menard H, Gurel V, Hagan E, DeCaro R, Zhitkovich A: WRN helicase promotes repair of DNA double-strand breaks caused by aberrant mismatch repair of chromium-DNA adducts. Cell Cycle. 2009 Sep 1;8(17):2769-78. Epub 2009 Sep 2. [PubMed:19652551 ]
  17. Opresko PL, Sowd G, Wang H: The Werner syndrome helicase/exonuclease processes mobile D-loops through branch migration and degradation. PLoS One. 2009;4(3):e4825. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004825. Epub 2009 Mar 13. [PubMed:19283071 ]
  18. Hu JS, Feng H, Zeng W, Lin GX, Xi XG: Solution structure of a multifunctional DNA- and protein-binding motif of human Werner syndrome protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 20;102(51):18379-84. Epub 2005 Dec 9. [PubMed:16339893 ]
  19. Perry JJ, Yannone SM, Holden LG, Hitomi C, Asaithamby A, Han S, Cooper PK, Chen DJ, Tainer JA: WRN exonuclease structure and molecular mechanism imply an editing role in DNA end processing. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006 May;13(5):414-22. Epub 2006 Apr 23. [PubMed:16622405 ]
  20. Moser MJ, Oshima J, Monnat RJ Jr: WRN mutations in Werner syndrome. Hum Mutat. 1999;13(4):271-9. [PubMed:10220139 ]
  21. Kitano K, Yoshihara N, Hakoshima T: Crystal structure of the HRDC domain of human Werner syndrome protein, WRN. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 26;282(4):2717-28. Epub 2006 Dec 4. [PubMed:17148451 ]
  22. Kitano K, Kim SY, Hakoshima T: Structural basis for DNA strand separation by the unconventional winged-helix domain of RecQ helicase WRN. Structure. 2010 Feb 10;18(2):177-87. doi: 10.1016/j.str.2009.12.011. [PubMed:20159463 ]
  23. Ye L, Miki T, Nakura J, Oshima J, Kamino K, Rakugi H, Ikegami H, Higaki J, Edland SD, Martin GM, Ogihara T: Association of a polymorphic variant of the Werner helicase gene with myocardial infarction in a Japanese population. Am J Med Genet. 1997 Feb 11;68(4):494-8. [PubMed:9021029 ]
  24. Meisslitzer C, Ruppitsch W, Weirich-Schwaiger H, Weirich HG, Jabkowsky J, Klein G, Schweiger M, Hirsch-Kauffmann M: Werner syndrome: characterization of mutations in the WRN gene in an affected family. Eur J Hum Genet. 1997 Nov-Dec;5(6):364-70. [PubMed:9450180 ]
  25. Vidal V, Bay JO, Champomier F, Grancho M, Beauville L, Glowaczower C, Lemery D, Ferrara M, Bignon YJ: The 1396del A mutation and a missense mutation or a rare polymorphism of the WRN gene detected in a French Werner family with a severe phenotype and a case of an unusual vulvar cancer. Mutations in brief no. 136. Online. Hum Mutat. 1998;11(5):413-4. [PubMed:10206685 ]
  26. Castro E, Ogburn CE, Hunt KE, Tilvis R, Louhija J, Penttinen R, Erkkola R, Panduro A, Riestra R, Piussan C, Deeb SS, Wang L, Edland SD, Martin GM, Oshima J: Polymorphisms at the Werner locus: I. Newly identified polymorphisms, ethnic variability of 1367Cys/Arg, and its stability in a population of Finnish centenarians. Am J Med Genet. 1999 Feb 19;82(5):399-403. [PubMed:10069711 ]
  27. Passarino G, Shen P, Van Kirk JB, Lin AA, De Benedictis G, Cavalli Sforza LL, Oefner PJ, Underhill PA: The Werner syndrome gene and global sequence variation. Genomics. 2001 Jan 1;71(1):118-22. [PubMed:11161804 ]
  28. Huang S, Lee L, Hanson NB, Lenaerts C, Hoehn H, Poot M, Rubin CD, Chen DF, Yang CC, Juch H, Dorn T, Spiegel R, Oral EA, Abid M, Battisti C, Lucci-Cordisco E, Neri G, Steed EH, Kidd A, Isley W, Showalter D, Vittone JL, Konstantinow A, Ring J, Meyer P, Wenger SL, von Herbay A, Wollina U, Schuelke M, Huizenga CR, Leistritz DF, Martin GM, Mian IS, Oshima J: The spectrum of WRN mutations in Werner syndrome patients. Hum Mutat. 2006 Jun;27(6):558-67. [PubMed:16673358 ]