You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP09163
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 14919
Name Alkaline ceramidase 2
Synonyms
  1. Acylsphingosine deacylase 3-like
  2. AlkCDase 2
  3. Alkaline CDase 2
  4. N-acylsphingosine amidohydrolase 3-like
  5. haCER2
Gene Name ACER2
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds, in linear amides
Specific Function Hydrolyzes the sphingolipid ceramide into sphingosine and free fatty acid. Unsaturated long-chain ceramides are the best substrates, saturated long-chain ceramides and unsaturated very long-chain ceramides are good substrates, whereas saturated very long-chain ceramides and short-chain ceramides were poor substrates. The substrate preference is D-erythro-C(18:1)-, C(20:1)-, C(20:4)-ceramide > D-erythro-C(16:0)-, C(18:0), C(20:0)-ceramide > D-erythro-C(24:1)-ceramide > D-erythro-C(12:0)-ceramide, D-erythro-C(14:0)-ceramides > D-erythro-C(24:0)-ceramide > D-erythro-C(6:0)-ceramide. Inhibits the maturation of protein glycosylation in the Golgi complex, including that of integrin beta-1 (ITGB1) and of LAMP1, by increasing the levels of sphingosine. Inhibits cell adhesion by reducing the level of ITGB1 in the cell surface. May have a role in cell proliferation and apoptosis that seems to depend on the balance between sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate.
Pathways
  • sphingolipid metabolism
Reactions
N-acylsphingosine + Water → a carboxylate + Sphingosine details
N-Acylsphingosine + Water → Fatty acid + Sphingosine details
Dihydroceramide + Water → Fatty acid + Sphinganine details
Phytoceramide + Water → Fatty acid + Phytosphingosine details
GO Classification
Biological Process
phospholipid metabolic process
sphingosine biosynthetic process
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process
cellular response to drug
ceramide metabolic process
negative regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin
negative regulation of cell-matrix adhesion
negative regulation of protein glycosylation in Golgi
positive regulation of cell death
positive regulation of cell proliferation
response to retinoic acid
Cellular Component
integral to Golgi membrane
Component
cell part
membrane part
intrinsic to membrane
integral to membrane
Function
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds
hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds, in linear amides
Molecular Function
dihydroceramidase activity
Process
sphingoid metabolic process
metabolic process
ceramide metabolic process
sphingolipid metabolic process
membrane lipid metabolic process
primary metabolic process
lipid metabolic process
cellular lipid metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Golgi apparatus membrane
  2. Multi-pass membrane protein
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 9
Locus 9p22.1
SNPs ACER2
Gene Sequence
>828 bp
ATGGGCGCCCCGCACTGGTGGGACCAGCTGCAGGCTGGTAGCTCGGAGGTGGACTGGTGC
GAGGACAACTACACCATCGTGCCTGCTATCGCCGAGTTCTACAACACGATCAGCAATGTC
TTATTTTTCATTTTACCGCCCATCTGCATGTGCTTGTTTCGTCAGTATGCAACATGCTTC
AACAGTGGCATCTACTTAATCTGGACTCTTTTGGTTGTAGTGGGAATTGGATCCGTCTAC
TTCCATGCAACCCTTAGTTTCTTGGGTCAGATGCTTGATGAACTTGCAGTCCTTTGGGTT
CTGATGTGTGCTTTGGCCATGTGGTTCCCCAGAAGGTATCTACCAAAGATCTTTCGGAAT
GACCGGGGTAGGTTCAAGGTGGTGGTCAGTGTCCTGTCTGCGGTTACGACGTGCCTGGCA
TTTGTCAAGCCTGCCATCAACAACATCTCTCTGATGACCCTGGGAGTTCCTTGCACTGCA
CTGCTCATCGCAGAGCTAAAGAGGTGTGACAACATGCGTGTGTTTAAGCTGGGCCTCTTC
TCGGGCCTCTGGTGGACCCTGGCCCTGTTCTGCTGGATCAGTGACCGAGCTTTCTGCGAG
CTGCTGTCATCCTTCAACTTCCCCTACCTGCACTGCATGTGGCACATCCTCATCTGCCTT
GCTGCCTACCTGGGCTGTGTATGCTTTGCCTACTTTGATGCTGCCTCAGAGATTCCTGAG
CAAGGCCCTGTCATCAAGTTCTGGCCCAATGAGAAATGGGCCTTCATTGGTGTCCCCTAT
GTGTCCCTCCTGTGTGCCAACAAGAAATCATCAGTCAAGACCACGTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 275
Molecular Weight 31308.85
Theoretical pI 7.654
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Alkaline ceramidase 2
MGAPHWWDQLQAGSSEVDWCEDNYTIVPAIAEFYNTISNVLFFILPPICMCLFRQYATCF
NSGIYLIWTLLVVVGIGSVYFHATLSFLGQMLDELAVLWVLMCALAMWFPRRYLPKIFRN
DRGRFKVVVSVLSAVTTCLAFVKPAINNISLMTLGVPCTALLIAELKRCDNMRVFKLGLF
SGLWWTLALFCWISDRAFCELLSSFNFPYLHCMWHILICLAAYLGCVCFAYFDAASEIPE
QGPVIKFWPNEKWAFIGVPYVSLLCANKKSSVKIT
GenBank ID Protein 36304156
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q5QJU3
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ACER2_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID AY312516
GeneCard ID ACER2
GenAtlas ID ACER2
HGNC ID HGNC:23675
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Humphray SJ, Oliver K, Hunt AR, Plumb RW, Loveland JE, Howe KL, Andrews TD, Searle S, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Jones MC, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Babbage S, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford D, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Chen Y, Clarke G, Clark SY, Clee CM, Clegg S, Collier RE, Corby N, Crosier M, Cummings AT, Davies J, Dhami P, Dunn M, Dutta I, Dyer LW, Earthrowl ME, Faulkner L, Fleming CJ, Frankish A, Frankland JA, French L, Fricker DG, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori J, Gilbert JG, Glison C, Grafham DV, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Guy J, Hall RE, Hammond S, Harley JL, Harrison ES, Hart EA, Heath PD, Henderson CD, Hopkins BL, Howard PJ, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan S, Kershaw JK, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nisbett J, Nordsiek G, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Porter KM, Pandian R, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Povey S, Ramsey Y, Rand V, Scharfe M, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Sims SK, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward CA, Swarbreck D, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Thomas DW, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, Whitehead SL, Willey DL, Williams SA, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Ashurst JL, Coulson A, Blocker H, Durbin R, Sulston JE, Hubbard T, Jackson MJ, Bentley DR, Beck S, Rogers J, Dunham I: DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9. Nature. 2004 May 27;429(6990):369-74. [PubMed:15164053 ]
  3. Wan D, Gong Y, Qin W, Zhang P, Li J, Wei L, Zhou X, Li H, Qiu X, Zhong F, He L, Yu J, Yao G, Jiang H, Qian L, Yu Y, Shu H, Chen X, Xu H, Guo M, Pan Z, Chen Y, Ge C, Yang S, Gu J: Large-scale cDNA transfection screening for genes related to cancer development and progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 2;101(44):15724-9. Epub 2004 Oct 21. [PubMed:15498874 ]
  4. Xu R, Jin J, Hu W, Sun W, Bielawski J, Szulc Z, Taha T, Obeid LM, Mao C: Golgi alkaline ceramidase regulates cell proliferation and survival by controlling levels of sphingosine and S1P. FASEB J. 2006 Sep;20(11):1813-25. [PubMed:16940153 ]
  5. Sun W, Hu W, Xu R, Jin J, Szulc ZM, Zhang G, Galadari SH, Obeid LM, Mao C: Alkaline ceramidase 2 regulates beta1 integrin maturation and cell adhesion. FASEB J. 2009 Feb;23(2):656-66. doi: 10.1096/fj.08-115634. Epub 2008 Oct 22. [PubMed:18945876 ]