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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP09210
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 14992
Name Egl nine homolog 1
Synonyms
  1. HIF-PH2
  2. HIF-prolyl hydroxylase 2
  3. HPH-2
  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase 2
  5. PHD2
  6. Prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2
  7. SM-20
Gene Name EGLN1
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific proline found in each of the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domains (N-terminal, NODD, and C-terminal, CODD) of HIF1A. Also hydroxylates HIF2A. Has a preference for the CODD site for both HIF1A and HIF1B. Hydroxylated HIFs are then targeted for proteasomal degradation via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitination complex. Under hypoxic conditions, the hydroxylation reaction is attenuated allowing HIFs to escape degradation resulting in their translocation to the nucleus, heterodimerization with HIF1B, and increased expression of hypoxy-inducible genes. EGLN1 is the most important isozyme under normoxia and, through regulating the stability of HIF1, involved in various hypoxia-influenced processes such as angiogenesis in retinal and cardiac functionality.
Pathways
  • HIF-1 signaling pathway
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • The Oncogenic Action of Fumarate
  • The Oncogenic Action of Succinate
Reactions
Hypoxia-inducible factor-L-proline + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → hypoxia-inducible factor-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline + Succinic acid + CO(2) details
GO Classification
Biological Process
labyrinthine layer development
negative regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
oxygen homeostasis
peptidyl-proline hydroxylation to 4-hydroxy-L-proline
regulation of angiogenesis
response to nitric oxide
ventricular septum morphogenesis
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to hypoxia
cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis
heart trabecula formation
Cellular Component
cytosol
nucleus
Function
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
catalytic activity
transition metal ion binding
zinc ion binding
l-ascorbic acid binding
iron ion binding
oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen
vitamin binding
oxidoreductase activity
Molecular Function
oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen
L-ascorbic acid binding
iron ion binding
zinc ion binding
peptidyl-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Process
metabolic process
oxidation reduction
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 1
Locus 1q42.1
SNPs EGLN1
Gene Sequence
>1281 bp
ATGGCCAATGACAGCGGCGGGCCCGGCGGGCCGAGCCCGAGCGAGCGAGACCGGCAGTAC
TGCGAGCTGTGCGGGAAGATGGAGAACCTGCTGCGCTGCAGCCGCTGCCGCAGCTCCTTC
TACTGCTGCAAGGAGCACCAGCGTCAGGACTGGAAGAAGCACAAGCTCGTGTGCCAGGGC
AGCGAGGGCGCCCTCGGCCACGGAGTGGGCCCACACCAGCATTCCGGCCCCGCGCCGCCG
GCTGCAGTGCCGCCGCCCAGGGCCGGGGCCCGGGAGCCCAGGAAGGCAGCGGCGCGCCGG
GACAACGCCTCCGGGGACGCGGCCAAGGGAAAAGTAAAGGCCAAGCCCCCGGCCGACCCA
GCGGCGGCCGCGTCGCCGTGTCGTGCGGCCGCCGGCGGCCAGGGCTCGGCGGTGGCTGCC
GAAGCCGAGCCCGGCAAGGAGGAGCCGCCGGCCCGCTCATCGCTGTTCCAGGAGAAGGCG
AACCTGTACCCCCCAAGCAACACGCCCGGGGATGCGCTGAGCCCCGGCGGCGGCCTGCGG
CCCAACGGGCAGACGAAGCCCCTGCCGGCGCTGAAGCTGGCGCTCGAGTACATCGTGCCG
TGCATGAACAAGCACGGCATCTGTGTGGTGGACGACTTCCTCGGCAAGGAGACCGGACAG
CAGATCGGCGACGAGGTGCGCGCCCTGCACGACACCGGGAAGTTCACGGACGGGCAGCTG
GTCAGCCAGAAGAGTGACTCGTCCAAGGACATCCGAGGCGATAAGATCACCTGGATCGAG
GGCAAGGAGCCCGGCTGCGAAACCATTGGGCTGCTCATGAGCAGCATGGACGACCTGATA
CGCCACTGTAACGGGAAGCTGGGCAGCTACAAAATCAATGGCCGGACGAAAGCCATGGTT
GCTTGTTATCCGGGCAATGGAACGGGTTATGTACGTCATGTTGATAATCCAAATGGAGAT
GGAAGATGTGTGACATGTATATATTATCTTAATAAAGACTGGGATGCCAAGGTAAGTGGA
GGTATACTTCGAATTTTTCCAGAAGGCAAAGCCCAGTTTGCTGACATTGAACCCAAATTT
GATAGACTGCTGTTTTTCTGGTCTGACCGTCGCAACCCTCATGAAGTACAACCAGCATAT
GCTACAAGGTACGCAATAACTGTTTGGTATTTTGATGCAGATGAGAGAGCACGAGCTAAA
GTAAAATATCTAACAGGTGAAAAAGGTGTGAGGGTTGAACTCAATAAACCTTCAGATTCG
GTCGGTAAAGACGTCTTCTAG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 426
Molecular Weight 46020.585
Theoretical pI 8.534
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Egl nine homolog 1
MANDSGGPGGPSPSERDRQYCELCGKMENLLRCSRCRSSFYCCKEHQRQDWKKHKLVCQG
SEGALGHGVGPHQHSGPAPPAAVPPPRAGAREPRKAAARRDNASGDAAKGKVKAKPPADP
AAAASPCRAAAGGQGSAVAAEAEPGKEEPPARSSLFQEKANLYPPSNTPGDALSPGGGLR
PNGQTKPLPALKLALEYIVPCMNKHGICVVDDFLGKETGQQIGDEVRALHDTGKFTDGQL
VSQKSDSSKDIRGDKITWIEGKEPGCETIGLLMSSMDDLIRHCNGKLGSYKINGRTKAMV
ACYPGNGTGYVRHVDNPNGDGRCVTCIYYLNKDWDAKVSGGILRIFPEGKAQFADIEPKF
DRLLFFWSDRRNPHEVQPAYATRYAITVWYFDADERARAKVKYLTGEKGVRVELNKPSDS
VGKDVF
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q9GZT9
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name EGLN1_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AF229245
GeneCard ID EGLN1
GenAtlas ID EGLN1
HGNC ID HGNC:1232
References
General References
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  2. Gauci S, Helbig AO, Slijper M, Krijgsveld J, Heck AJ, Mohammed S: Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. Anal Chem. 2009 Jun 1;81(11):4493-501. doi: 10.1021/ac9004309. [PubMed:19413330 ]
  3. Bechtel S, Rosenfelder H, Duda A, Schmidt CP, Ernst U, Wellenreuther R, Mehrle A, Schuster C, Bahr A, Blocker H, Heubner D, Hoerlein A, Michel G, Wedler H, Kohrer K, Ottenwalder B, Poustka A, Wiemann S, Schupp I: The full-ORF clone resource of the German cDNA Consortium. BMC Genomics. 2007 Oct 31;8:399. [PubMed:17974005 ]
  4. Ivan M, Haberberger T, Gervasi DC, Michelson KS, Gunzler V, Kondo K, Yang H, Sorokina I, Conaway RC, Conaway JW, Kaelin WG Jr: Biochemical purification and pharmacological inhibition of a mammalian prolyl hydroxylase acting on hypoxia-inducible factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 15;99(21):13459-64. Epub 2002 Sep 26. [PubMed:12351678 ]
  5. Dupuy D, Aubert I, Duperat VG, Petit J, Taine L, Stef M, Bloch B, Arveiler B: Mapping, characterization, and expression analysis of the SM-20 human homologue, c1orf12, and identification of a novel related gene, SCAND2. Genomics. 2000 Nov 1;69(3):348-54. [PubMed:11056053 ]
  6. Taylor MS: Characterization and comparative analysis of the EGLN gene family. Gene. 2001 Sep 5;275(1):125-32. [PubMed:11574160 ]
  7. Semenza GL: HIF-1, O(2), and the 3 PHDs: how animal cells signal hypoxia to the nucleus. Cell. 2001 Oct 5;107(1):1-3. [PubMed:11595178 ]
  8. Epstein AC, Gleadle JM, McNeill LA, Hewitson KS, O'Rourke J, Mole DR, Mukherji M, Metzen E, Wilson MI, Dhanda A, Tian YM, Masson N, Hamilton DL, Jaakkola P, Barstead R, Hodgkin J, Maxwell PH, Pugh CW, Schofield CJ, Ratcliffe PJ: C. elegans EGL-9 and mammalian homologs define a family of dioxygenases that regulate HIF by prolyl hydroxylation. Cell. 2001 Oct 5;107(1):43-54. [PubMed:11595184 ]
  9. Oehme F, Ellinghaus P, Kolkhof P, Smith TJ, Ramakrishnan S, Hutter J, Schramm M, Flamme I: Overexpression of PH-4, a novel putative proline 4-hydroxylase, modulates activity of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Aug 16;296(2):343-9. [PubMed:12163023 ]
  10. Cioffi CL, Liu XQ, Kosinski PA, Garay M, Bowen BR: Differential regulation of HIF-1 alpha prolyl-4-hydroxylase genes by hypoxia in human cardiovascular cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Apr 11;303(3):947-53. [PubMed:12670503 ]
  11. Ozer A, Wu LC, Bruick RK: The candidate tumor suppressor ING4 represses activation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 May 24;102(21):7481-6. Epub 2005 May 16. [PubMed:15897452 ]
  12. McDonough MA, Li V, Flashman E, Chowdhury R, Mohr C, Lienard BM, Zondlo J, Oldham NJ, Clifton IJ, Lewis J, McNeill LA, Kurzeja RJ, Hewitson KS, Yang E, Jordan S, Syed RS, Schofield CJ: Cellular oxygen sensing: Crystal structure of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 27;103(26):9814-9. Epub 2006 Jun 16. [PubMed:16782814 ]
  13. Percy MJ, Zhao Q, Flores A, Harrison C, Lappin TR, Maxwell PH, McMullin MF, Lee FS: A family with erythrocytosis establishes a role for prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 in oxygen homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jan 17;103(3):654-9. Epub 2006 Jan 9. [PubMed:16407130 ]
  14. Percy MJ, Furlow PW, Beer PA, Lappin TR, McMullin MF, Lee FS: A novel erythrocytosis-associated PHD2 mutation suggests the location of a HIF binding groove. Blood. 2007 Sep 15;110(6):2193-6. Epub 2007 Jun 19. [PubMed:17579185 ]