Survey with prize
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP10726
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 16988
Name Azurocidin
  1. Cationic antimicrobial protein CAP37
  2. HBP
  3. Heparin-binding protein
Gene Name AZU1
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function This is a neutrophil granule-derived antibacterial and monocyte- and fibroblast-specific chemotactic glycoprotein. Binds heparin. The cytotoxic action is limited to many species of Gram- negative bacteria; this specificity may be explained by a strong affinity of the very basic N-terminal half for the negatively charged lipopolysaccharides that are unique to the Gram-negative bacterial outer envelope. It may play a role in mediating recruitment of monocytes in the second wave of inflammation. Has antibacterial activity against the Gram-nagative bacterium P.aeruginosa, this activity is inhibited by LPS from P.aeruginosa. Acting alone, it does not have antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria A.actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29532, A.actinomycetemcomitans NCTC 9709, A.actinomycetemcomitans FDC-Y4, H.aphrophilus ATCC 13252, E.corrodens ATCC 23834, C.sputigena ATCC 33123, Capnocytophaga sp ATCC 33124, Capnocytophaga sp ATCC 27872 or E.coli ML-35. Has antibacterial activity against C.sputigena ATCC 33123 when acting synergistically with either elastase or cathepsin G
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
endopeptidase activity
serine-type endopeptidase activity
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
peptidase activity
peptidase activity, acting on l-amino acid peptides
metabolic process
macromolecule metabolic process
protein metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasmic granule
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Locus 19p13.3
Gene Sequence
>756 bp
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 251
Molecular Weight 26885.4
Theoretical pI 9.65
Pfam Domain Function
  • 1-26
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
GenBank ID Protein 11342670
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P20160
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name CAP7_HUMAN
GenBank Gene ID NM_001700.3
GeneCard ID AZU1
GenAtlas ID AZU1
General References
  1. Chen R, Jiang X, Sun D, Han G, Wang F, Ye M, Wang L, Zou H: Glycoproteomics analysis of human liver tissue by combination of multiple enzyme digestion and hydrazide chemistry. J Proteome Res. 2009 Feb;8(2):651-61. doi: 10.1021/pr8008012. [PubMed:19159218 ]
  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Grimwood J, Gordon LA, Olsen A, Terry A, Schmutz J, Lamerdin J, Hellsten U, Goodstein D, Couronne O, Tran-Gyamfi M, Aerts A, Altherr M, Ashworth L, Bajorek E, Black S, Branscomb E, Caenepeel S, Carrano A, Caoile C, Chan YM, Christensen M, Cleland CA, Copeland A, Dalin E, Dehal P, Denys M, Detter JC, Escobar J, Flowers D, Fotopulos D, Garcia C, Georgescu AM, Glavina T, Gomez M, Gonzales E, Groza M, Hammon N, Hawkins T, Haydu L, Ho I, Huang W, Israni S, Jett J, Kadner K, Kimball H, Kobayashi A, Larionov V, Leem SH, Lopez F, Lou Y, Lowry S, Malfatti S, Martinez D, McCready P, Medina C, Morgan J, Nelson K, Nolan M, Ovcharenko I, Pitluck S, Pollard M, Popkie AP, Predki P, Quan G, Ramirez L, Rash S, Retterer J, Rodriguez A, Rogers S, Salamov A, Salazar A, She X, Smith D, Slezak T, Solovyev V, Thayer N, Tice H, Tsai M, Ustaszewska A, Vo N, Wagner M, Wheeler J, Wu K, Xie G, Yang J, Dubchak I, Furey TS, DeJong P, Dickson M, Gordon D, Eichler EE, Pennacchio LA, Richardson P, Stubbs L, Rokhsar DS, Myers RM, Rubin EM, Lucas SM: The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19. Nature. 2004 Apr 1;428(6982):529-35. [PubMed:15057824 ]
  4. Gabay JE, Scott RW, Campanelli D, Griffith J, Wilde C, Marra MN, Seeger M, Nathan CF: Antibiotic proteins of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jul;86(14):5610-4. [PubMed:2501794 ]
  5. Morgan JG, Sukiennicki T, Pereira HA, Spitznagel JK, Guerra ME, Larrick JW: Cloning of the cDNA for the serine protease homolog CAP37/azurocidin, a microbicidal and chemotactic protein from human granulocytes. J Immunol. 1991 Nov 1;147(9):3210-4. [PubMed:1919011 ]
  6. Zimmer M, Medcalf RL, Fink TM, Mattmann C, Lichter P, Jenne DE: Three human elastase-like genes coordinately expressed in the myelomonocyte lineage are organized as a single genetic locus on 19pter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Sep 1;89(17):8215-9. [PubMed:1518849 ]
  7. Almeida RP, Melchior M, Campanelli D, Nathan C, Gabay JE: Complementary DNA sequence of human neutrophil azurocidin, an antibiotic with extensive homology to serine proteases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Jun 14;177(2):688-95. [PubMed:2049091 ]
  8. Pohl J, Pereira HA, Martin NM, Spitznagel JK: Amino acid sequence of CAP37, a human neutrophil granule-derived antibacterial and monocyte-specific chemotactic glycoprotein structurally similar to neutrophil elastase. FEBS Lett. 1990 Oct 15;272(1-2):200-4. [PubMed:2226832 ]
  9. Flodgaard H, Ostergaard E, Bayne S, Svendsen A, Thomsen J, Engels M, Wollmer A: Covalent structure of two novel neutrophile leucocyte-derived proteins of porcine and human origin. Neutrophile elastase homologues with strong monocyte and fibroblast chemotactic activities. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Apr 23;197(2):535-47. [PubMed:2026172 ]
  10. Pereira HA, Shafer WM, Pohl J, Martin LE, Spitznagel JK: CAP37, a human neutrophil-derived chemotactic factor with monocyte specific activity. J Clin Invest. 1990 May;85(5):1468-76. [PubMed:2332502 ]
  11. Pereira HA, Spitznagel JK, Pohl J, Wilson DE, Morgan J, Palings I, Larrick JW: CAP 37, a 37 kD human neutrophil granule cationic protein shares homology with inflammatory proteinases. Life Sci. 1990;46(3):189-96. [PubMed:2406527 ]
  12. Wasiluk KR, Skubitz KM, Gray BH: Comparison of granule proteins from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes which are bactericidal toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infect Immun. 1991 Nov;59(11):4193-200. [PubMed:1937776 ]
  13. Green BG, Weston H, Ashe BM, Doherty J, Finke P, Hagmann W, Lark M, Mao J, Maycock A, Moore V, et al.: PMN elastases: a comparison of the specificity of human isozymes and the enzyme from other species toward substrates and inhibitors. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 Apr;286(1):284-92. [PubMed:1897955 ]
  14. Wilde CG, Snable JL, Griffith JE, Scott RW: Characterization of two azurphil granule proteases with active-site homology to neutrophil elastase. J Biol Chem. 1990 Feb 5;265(4):2038-41. [PubMed:2404977 ]
  15. Miyasaki KT, Bodeau AL: Human neutrophil azurocidin synergizes with leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G in the killing of Capnocytophaga sputigena. Infect Immun. 1992 Nov;60(11):4973-5. [PubMed:1399008 ]
  16. Morgan JG, Pereira HA, Sukiennicki T, Spitznagel JK, Larrick JW: Human neutrophil granule cationic protein CAP37 is a specific macrophage chemotaxin that shares homology with inflammatory proteinases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;305:89-96. [PubMed:1755383 ]
  17. Pereira HA, Erdem I, Pohl J, Spitznagel JK: Synthetic bactericidal peptide based on CAP37: a 37-kDa human neutrophil granule-associated cationic antimicrobial protein chemotactic for monocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 May 15;90(10):4733-7. [PubMed:8506327 ]
  18. Iversen LF, Kastrup JS, Bjorn SE, Rasmussen PB, Wiberg FC, Flodgaard HJ, Larsen IK: Structure of HBP, a multifunctional protein with a serine proteinase fold. Nat Struct Biol. 1997 Apr;4(4):265-8. [PubMed:9095193 ]
  19. Karlsen S, Iversen LF, Larsen IK, Flodgaard HJ, Kastrup JS: Atomic resolution structure of human HBP/CAP37/azurocidin. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1998 Jul 1;54(Pt 4):598-609. [PubMed:9761855 ]