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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP12613
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Name Apelin
Synonyms
  1. APJ endogenous ligand
Gene Name APLN
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Not Available
Specific Function Endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor (APLNR) (PubMed:10525157). Drives internalization of the apelin receptor (By similarity). Apelin-36 dissociates more hardly than (pyroglu)apelin-13 from APLNR (By similarity). Hormone involved in the regulation of cardiac precursor cell movements during gastrulation and heart morphogenesis (By similarity). Has an inhibitory effect on cytokine production in response to T-cell receptor/CD3 cross-linking; the oral intake of apelin in the colostrum and the milk might therefore modulate immune responses in neonates (By similarity). Plays a role in early coronary blood vessels formation (By similarity). Mediates myocardial contractility in an ERK1/2-dependent manner (By similarity). May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing vasopressin release and drinking behavior (By similarity).(Microbial infection) Endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor (APLNR), an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection (PubMed:11090199). Inhibits HIV-1 entry in cells coexpressing CD4 and APLNR (PubMed:11090199). Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other synthetic apelin derivatives (PubMed:11090199).
Pathways
  • Apelin signaling pathway
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Biological Process
gastrulation
signal transduction
positive regulation of phosphorylation
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
negative regulation of blood pressure
apelin receptor signaling pathway
coronary vasculature development
positive regulation of heart contraction
drinking behavior
negative regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway
negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell proliferation
regulation of the force of heart contraction
negative regulation of vasoconstriction
positive regulation of corticotropin secretion
positive regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion
positive regulation of G protein-coupled receptor internalization
positive regulation of heat generation
positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II
positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation
angiogenesis
regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange
viral reproduction
immune response
lactation
negative regulation of gene expression
Cellular Component
perinuclear region of cytoplasm
extracellular region
extracellular space
Molecular Function
receptor binding
apelin receptor binding
hormone activity
identical protein binding
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Not Available
Locus Not Available
SNPs Not Available
Gene Sequence Not Available
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 77
Molecular Weight 8569.02
Theoretical pI 11.829
Pfam Domain Function
Signals
  • 1-22;
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence Not Available
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q9ULZ1
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name APEL_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID Not Available
GeneCard ID Not Available
GenAtlas ID Not Available
HGNC ID Not Available
References
General References
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  3. Tatemoto K, Hosoya M, Habata Y, Fujii R, Kakegawa T, Zou MX, Kawamata Y, Fukusumi S, Hinuma S, Kitada C, Kurokawa T, Onda H, Fujino M: Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Oct 20;251(2):471-6. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1998.9489. [PubMed:9792798 ]
  4. Habata Y, Fujii R, Hosoya M, Fukusumi S, Kawamata Y, Hinuma S, Kitada C, Nishizawa N, Murosaki S, Kurokawa T, Onda H, Tatemoto K, Fujino M: Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, is abundantly secreted in the colostrum. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Oct 13;1452(1):25-35. doi: 10.1016/s0167-4889(99)00114-7. [PubMed:10525157 ]
  5. Lee DK, Cheng R, Nguyen T, Fan T, Kariyawasam AP, Liu Y, Osmond DH, George SR, O'Dowd BF: Characterization of apelin, the ligand for the APJ receptor. J Neurochem. 2000 Jan;74(1):34-41. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.2000.0740034.x. [PubMed:10617103 ]
  6. Cayabyab M, Hinuma S, Farzan M, Choe H, Fukusumi S, Kitada C, Nishizawa N, Hosoya M, Nishimura O, Messele T, Pollakis G, Goudsmit J, Fujino M, Sodroski J: Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan seven-transmembrane receptor APJ, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry. J Virol. 2000 Dec;74(24):11972-6. doi: 10.1128/jvi.74.24.11972-11976.2000. [PubMed:11090199 ]