Hmdb loader
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP12615
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Name Apelin receptor
  1. Angiotensin receptor-like 1
  2. G-protein coupled receptor APJ
  3. G-protein coupled receptor HG11
Gene Name APLNR
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Not Available
Specific Function Receptor for apelin receptor early endogenous ligand (APELA) and apelin (APLN) hormones coupled to G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity (PubMed:11090199, PubMed:25639753, PubMed:28137936). Plays a key role in early development such as gastrulation, blood vessels formation and heart morphogenesis by acting as a receptor for APELA hormone (By similarity). May promote angioblast migration toward the embryonic midline, i.e. the position of the future vessel formation, during vasculogenesis (By similarity). Promotes sinus venosus (SV)-derived endothelial cells migration into the developing heart to promote coronary blood vessel development (By similarity). Plays also a role in various processes in adults such as regulation of blood vessel formation, blood pressure, heart contractility and heart failure (PubMed:25639753, PubMed:28137936).(Microbial infection) Alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection; may be involved in the development of AIDS dementia (PubMed:11090199).
  • Apelin signaling pathway
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Biological Process
ventricular septum morphogenesis
regulation of body fluid levels
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
apelin receptor signaling pathway
coronary vasculature development
heart development
positive regulation of histone deacetylation
positive regulation of angiogenesis
positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell proliferation involved in sprouting angiogenesis
aorta development
atrioventricular valve development
endocardial cushion formation
positive regulation of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptor phosphorylation
adult heart development
positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol
regulation of gap junction assembly
vascular associated smooth muscle cell differentiation
vasculature development
venous blood vessel development
viral reproduction
heart looping
blood vessel development
regulation of gene expression
negative regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling
negative regulation of gene expression
Cellular Component
plasma membrane
integral to plasma membrane
Molecular Function
apelin receptor activity
signaling receptor activity
G protein-coupled receptor activity
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Not Available
Locus Not Available
SNPs Not Available
Gene Sequence Not Available
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 380
Molecular Weight 42660.055
Theoretical pI 7.491
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions
  • 27-51;67-91;101-125;145-166;201-221;245-271;285-308;
Protein Sequence Not Available
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P35414
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name APJ_HUMAN
GenBank Gene ID Not Available
GeneCard ID Not Available
GenAtlas ID Not Available
HGNC ID Not Available
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Cayabyab M, Hinuma S, Farzan M, Choe H, Fukusumi S, Kitada C, Nishizawa N, Hosoya M, Nishimura O, Messele T, Pollakis G, Goudsmit J, Fujino M, Sodroski J: Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan seven-transmembrane receptor APJ, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry. J Virol. 2000 Dec;74(24):11972-6. doi: 10.1128/jvi.74.24.11972-11976.2000. [PubMed:11090199 ]
  3. O'Dowd BF, Heiber M, Chan A, Heng HH, Tsui LC, Kennedy JL, Shi X, Petronis A, George SR, Nguyen T: A human gene that shows identity with the gene encoding the angiotensin receptor is located on chromosome 11. Gene. 1993 Dec 22;136(1-2):355-60. doi: 10.1016/0378-1119(93)90495-o. [PubMed:8294032 ]
  4. Wang Z, Yu D, Wang M, Wang Q, Kouznetsova J, Yang R, Qian K, Wu W, Shuldiner A, Sztalryd C, Zou M, Zheng W, Gong DW: Elabela-apelin receptor signaling pathway is functional in mammalian systems. Sci Rep. 2015 Feb 2;5:8170. doi: 10.1038/srep08170. [PubMed:25639753 ]
  5. Yang P, Read C, Kuc RE, Buonincontri G, Southwood M, Torella R, Upton PD, Crosby A, Sawiak SJ, Carpenter TA, Glen RC, Morrell NW, Maguire JJ, Davenport AP: Elabela/Toddler Is an Endogenous Agonist of the Apelin APJ Receptor in the Adult Cardiovascular System, and Exogenous Administration of the Peptide Compensates for the Downregulation of Its Expression in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Circulation. 2017 Mar 21;135(12):1160-1173. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.023218. Epub 2017 Jan 30. [PubMed:28137936 ]