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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP12797
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Name DNA repair protein complementing XP-C cells
Synonyms
  1. Xeroderma pigmentosum group C-complementing protein
  2. p125
Gene Name XPC
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Not Available
Specific Function Involved in global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) by acting as damage sensing and DNA-binding factor component of the XPC complex (PubMed:10734143, PubMed:19609301, PubMed:20649465, PubMed:9734359, PubMed:10873465, PubMed:12509299, PubMed:12547395, PubMed:19941824, PubMed:20028083, PubMed:20798892). Has only a low DNA repair activity by itself which is stimulated by RAD23B and RAD23A. Has a preference to bind DNA containing a short single-stranded segment but not to damaged oligonucleotides (PubMed:10734143, PubMed:19609301, PubMed:20649465). This feature is proposed to be related to a dynamic sensor function: XPC can rapidly screen duplex DNA for non-hydrogen-bonded bases by forming a transient nucleoprotein intermediate complex which matures into a stable recognition complex through an intrinsic single-stranded DNA-binding activity (PubMed:10734143, PubMed:19609301, PubMed:20649465). The XPC complex is proposed to represent the first factor bound at the sites of DNA damage and together with other core recognition factors, XPA, RPA and the TFIIH complex, is part of the pre-incision (or initial recognition) complex (PubMed:9734359, PubMed:10873465, PubMed:12509299, PubMed:12547395, PubMed:19941824, PubMed:20028083, PubMed:20798892). The XPC complex recognizes a wide spectrum of damaged DNA characterized by distortions of the DNA helix such as single-stranded loops, mismatched bubbles or single-stranded overhangs (PubMed:9734359, PubMed:10873465, PubMed:12509299, PubMed:12547395, PubMed:19941824, PubMed:20028083, PubMed:20798892). The orientation of XPC complex binding appears to be crucial for inducing a productive NER (PubMed:9734359, PubMed:10873465, PubMed:12509299, PubMed:12547395, PubMed:19941824, PubMed:20028083, PubMed:20798892). XPC complex is proposed to recognize and to interact with unpaired bases on the undamaged DNA strand which is followed by recruitment of the TFIIH complex and subsequent scanning for lesions in the opposite strand in a 5'-to-3' direction by the NER machinery (PubMed:9734359, PubMed:10873465, PubMed:12509299, PubMed:12547395, PubMed:19941824, PubMed:20028083, PubMed:20798892). Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) which are formed upon UV-induced DNA damage esacpe detection by the XPC complex due to a low degree of structural perurbation. Instead they are detected by the UV-DDB complex which in turn recruits and cooperates with the XPC complex in the respective DNA repair (PubMed:9734359, PubMed:10873465, PubMed:12509299, PubMed:12547395, PubMed:19941824, PubMed:20028083, PubMed:20798892). In vitro, the XPC:RAD23B dimer is sufficient to initiate NER; it preferentially binds to cisplatin and UV-damaged double-stranded DNA and also binds to a variety of chemically and structurally diverse DNA adducts (PubMed:20028083). XPC:RAD23B contacts DNA both 5' and 3' of a cisplatin lesion with a preference for the 5' side. XPC:RAD23B induces a bend in DNA upon binding. XPC:RAD23B stimulates the activity of DNA glycosylases TDG and SMUG1 (PubMed:20028083).In absence of DNA repair, the XPC complex also acts as a transcription coactivator: XPC interacts with the DNA-binding transcription factor E2F1 at a subset of promoters to recruit KAT2A and histone acetyltransferase complexes (HAT) (PubMed:29973595, PubMed:31527837). KAT2A recruitment specifically promotes acetylation of histone variant H2A.Z.1/H2A.Z, but not H2A.Z.2/H2A.V, thereby promoting expression of target genes (PubMed:31527837).
Pathways
  • Nucleotide excision repair
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Biological Process
nucleotide-excision repair
DNA repair
global genome nucleotide-excision repair
nucleotide-excision repair, DNA damage recognition
nucleotide-excision repair, preincision complex assembly
mismatch repair
UV-damage excision repair, DNA incision
intra-S DNA damage checkpoint
regulation of mitotic cell cycle phase transition
response to auditory stimulus
response to UV-B
response to drug
nucleotide-excision repair, DNA duplex unwinding
UV-damage excision repair
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent
pyrimidine dimer repair by nucleotide-excision repair
Cellular Component
cytosol
site of DNA damage
cytoplasm
mitochondrion
nucleolus
plasma membrane
nucleus
XPC complex
nucleotide-excision repair factor 2 complex
nucleoplasm
nucleotide-excision repair complex
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle
Molecular Function
protein-containing complex binding
heteroduplex DNA loop binding
bubble DNA binding
single-stranded DNA binding
transcription coactivator activity
damaged DNA binding
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Not Available
Locus Not Available
SNPs Not Available
Gene Sequence Not Available
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 940
Molecular Weight 105951.785
Theoretical pI 8.893
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence Not Available
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q01831
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name XPC_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID Not Available
GeneCard ID Not Available
GenAtlas ID Not Available
HGNC ID Not Available
References
General References
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