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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP13363
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Name Proenkephalin-B
Synonyms
  1. Beta-neoendorphin-dynorphin
  2. Preprodynorphin
Gene Name PDYN
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Not Available
Specific Function Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress (By similarity).Dynorphin peptides differentially regulate the kappa opioid receptor. Dynorphin A(1-13) has a typical opiod activity, it is 700 times more potent than Leu-enkephalin (By similarity).Leumorphin has a typical opiod activity and may have anti-apoptotic effect.
Pathways
  • Alcoholism
  • Amphetamine addiction
  • Cocaine addiction
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • Pathways of neurodegeneration - multiple diseases
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Biological Process
sensory perception
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
neuropeptide signaling pathway
synaptic transmission
Cellular Component
plasma membrane
dendrite
axon terminus
extracellular region
neuronal cell body
Molecular Function
opioid peptide activity
opioid receptor binding
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Not Available
Locus Not Available
SNPs Not Available
Gene Sequence Not Available
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 254
Molecular Weight 28384.875
Theoretical pI 6.303
Pfam Domain Function
Signals
  • 1-20;
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence Not Available
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P01213
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PDYN_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID Not Available
GeneCard ID Not Available
GenAtlas ID Not Available
HGNC ID Not Available
References
General References
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  4. Horikawa S, Takai T, Toyosato M, Takahashi H, Noda M, Kakidani H, Kubo T, Hirose T, Inayama S, Hayashida H, et al.: Isolation and structural organization of the human preproenkephalin B gene. Nature. 1983 Dec 8-14;306(5943):611-4. [PubMed:6316163 ]
  5. Tessmer MR, Kallick DA: NMR and structural model of dynorphin A (1-17) bound to dodecylphosphocholine micelles. Biochemistry. 1997 Feb 25;36(8):1971-81. [PubMed:9047294 ]
  6. Chen Y, Chen C, Liu-Chen LY: Dynorphin peptides differentially regulate the human kappa opioid receptor. Life Sci. 2007 Mar 20;80(15):1439-48. Epub 2007 Jan 20. [PubMed:17316701 ]
  7. Merg F, Filliol D, Usynin I, Bazov I, Bark N, Hurd YL, Yakovleva T, Kieffer BL, Bakalkin G: Big dynorphin as a putative endogenous ligand for the kappa-opioid receptor. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(1):292-301. Epub 2006 Mar 3. [PubMed:16515546 ]
  8. Bakalkin G, Watanabe H, Jezierska J, Depoorter C, Verschuuren-Bemelmans C, Bazov I, Artemenko KA, Yakovleva T, Dooijes D, Van de Warrenburg BP, Zubarev RA, Kremer B, Knapp PE, Hauser KF, Wijmenga C, Nyberg F, Sinke RJ, Verbeek DS: Prodynorphin mutations cause the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 23. Am J Hum Genet. 2010 Nov 12;87(5):593-603. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.10.001. Epub 2010 Oct 28. [PubMed:21035104 ]
  9. Madani F, Taqi MM, Warmlander SK, Verbeek DS, Bakalkin G, Graslund A: Perturbations of model membranes induced by pathogenic dynorphin A mutants causing neurodegeneration in human brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Jul 22;411(1):111-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.06.105. Epub 2011 Jun 25. [PubMed:21712028 ]
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