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HMDB Protein ID HMDBP13585
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Name Pro-glucagon
Synonyms Not Available
Gene Name GCG
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Not Available
Specific Function Plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes.Potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Also stimulates insulin release in response to IL6 (PubMed:22037645). Plays important roles on gastric motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Has growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin secretion. Increases islet mass through stimulation of islet neogenesis and pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Inhibits beta cell apoptosis (Probable).Stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis, enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability.Significantly reduces food intake. Inhibits gastric emptying in humans. Suppression of gastric emptying may lead to increased gastric distension, which may contribute to satiety by causing a sensation of fullness.May modulate gastric acid secretion and the gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity. May play an important role in intestinal mucosal growth in the early period of life.
  • cAMP signaling pathway
  • Glucagon signaling pathway
  • Insulin secretion
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • Thermogenesis
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Biological Process
negative regulation of inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus
positive regulation of protein kinase activity
negative regulation of apoptotic process
positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
positive regulation of histone H3-K4 methylation
positive regulation of calcium ion import
positive regulation of protein binding
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade
positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation
positive regulation of gluconeogenesis
feeding behavior
glucose homeostasis
adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway
negative regulation of execution phase of apoptosis
protein kinase A signaling
response to activity
regulation of insulin secretion
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation
adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
cellular response to glucagon stimulus
Cellular Component
endoplasmic reticulum lumen
extracellular region
extracellular space
secretory granule lumen
Molecular Function
receptor binding
hormone activity
glucagon receptor binding
identical protein binding
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Not Available
Locus Not Available
SNPs Not Available
Gene Sequence Not Available
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 180
Molecular Weight 20909.025
Theoretical pI 6.232
Pfam Domain Function
  • 1-20;
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence Not Available
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P01275
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name GLUC_HUMAN
GenBank Gene ID Not Available
GeneCard ID Not Available
GenAtlas ID Not Available
HGNC ID Not Available
General References
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