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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP13763
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Name Lymphocyte antigen 96
Synonyms
  1. Ly-96
  2. ESOP-1
  3. Protein MD-2
Gene Name LY96
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Not Available
Specific Function Binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (PubMed:17803912, PubMed:17569869). Cooperates with TLR4 in the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and with TLR2 in the response to cell wall components from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (PubMed:11160242, PubMed:11593030). Enhances TLR4-dependent activation of NF-kappa-B (PubMed:10359581). Cells expressing both LY96 and TLR4, but not TLR4 alone, respond to LPS (PubMed:10359581).
Pathways
  • Lipid and atherosclerosis
  • NF-kappa B signaling pathway
  • Pertussis
  • Salmonella infection
  • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
  • Toxoplasmosis
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Biological Process
apoptotic signaling pathway
response to lipopolysaccharide
inflammatory response
cellular defense response
I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide
MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway
necroptotic process
cell surface receptor signaling pathway
positive regulation of lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway
detection of lipopolysaccharide
innate immune response
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production
toll-like receptor signaling pathway
negative regulation of MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway
MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway
toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway
TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway
Cellular Component
intrinsic component of plasma membrane
plasma membrane
lipopolysaccharide receptor complex
extracellular space
endosome membrane
Molecular Function
lipopolysaccharide binding
lipopolysaccharide immune receptor activity
coreceptor activity
Toll-like receptor 4 binding
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Not Available
Locus Not Available
SNPs Not Available
Gene Sequence Not Available
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 160
Molecular Weight 18545.345
Theoretical pI 8.514
Pfam Domain Function Not Available
Signals
  • 1-18;
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence Not Available
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q9Y6Y9
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name LY96_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID Not Available
GeneCard ID Not Available
GenAtlas ID Not Available
HGNC ID Not Available
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Nusbaum C, Mikkelsen TS, Zody MC, Asakawa S, Taudien S, Garber M, Kodira CD, Schueler MG, Shimizu A, Whittaker CA, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Dewar K, FitzGerald MG, Yang X, Allen NR, Anderson S, Asakawa T, Blechschmidt K, Bloom T, Borowsky ML, Butler J, Cook A, Corum B, DeArellano K, DeCaprio D, Dooley KT, Dorris L 3rd, Engels R, Glockner G, Hafez N, Hagopian DS, Hall JL, Ishikawa SK, Jaffe DB, Kamat A, Kudoh J, Lehmann R, Lokitsang T, Macdonald P, Major JE, Matthews CD, Mauceli E, Menzel U, Mihalev AH, Minoshima S, Murayama Y, Naylor JW, Nicol R, Nguyen C, O'Leary SB, O'Neill K, Parker SC, Polley A, Raymond CK, Reichwald K, Rodriguez J, Sasaki T, Schilhabel M, Siddiqui R, Smith CL, Sneddon TP, Talamas JA, Tenzin P, Topham K, Venkataraman V, Wen G, Yamazaki S, Young SK, Zeng Q, Zimmer AR, Rosenthal A, Birren BW, Platzer M, Shimizu N, Lander ES: DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 8. Nature. 2006 Jan 19;439(7074):331-5. [PubMed:16421571 ]
  3. Nakajima T, Ohtani H, Satta Y, Uno Y, Akari H, Ishida T, Kimura A: Natural selection in the TLR-related genes in the course of primate evolution. Immunogenetics. 2008 Dec;60(12):727-35. doi: 10.1007/s00251-008-0332-0. Epub 2008 Sep 23. [PubMed:18810425 ]
  4. Kim HM, Park BS, Kim JI, Kim SE, Lee J, Oh SC, Enkhbayar P, Matsushima N, Lee H, Yoo OJ, Lee JO: Crystal structure of the TLR4-MD-2 complex with bound endotoxin antagonist Eritoran. Cell. 2007 Sep 7;130(5):906-17. [PubMed:17803912 ]
  5. da Silva Correia J, Soldau K, Christen U, Tobias PS, Ulevitch RJ: Lipopolysaccharide is in close proximity to each of the proteins in its membrane receptor complex. transfer from CD14 to TLR4 and MD-2. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jun 15;276(24):21129-35. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M009164200. Epub 2001 Mar 26. [PubMed:11274165 ]
  6. Shimazu R, Akashi S, Ogata H, Nagai Y, Fukudome K, Miyake K, Kimoto M: MD-2, a molecule that confers lipopolysaccharide responsiveness on Toll-like receptor 4. J Exp Med. 1999 Jun 7;189(11):1777-82. doi: 10.1084/jem.189.11.1777. [PubMed:10359581 ]
  7. Kato K, Morrison AM, Nakano T, Tashiro K, Honjo T: ESOP-1, a secreted protein expressed in the hematopoietic, nervous, and reproductive systems of embryonic and adult mice. Blood. 2000 Jul 1;96(1):362-4. [PubMed:10891475 ]
  8. Schromm AB, Lien E, Henneke P, Chow JC, Yoshimura A, Heine H, Latz E, Monks BG, Schwartz DA, Miyake K, Golenbock DT: Molecular genetic analysis of an endotoxin nonresponder mutant cell line: a point mutation in a conserved region of MD-2 abolishes endotoxin-induced signaling. J Exp Med. 2001 Jul 2;194(1):79-88. doi: 10.1084/jem.194.1.79. [PubMed:11435474 ]
  9. Dziarski R, Wang Q, Miyake K, Kirschning CJ, Gupta D: MD-2 enables Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated responses to lipopolysaccharide and enhances TLR2-mediated responses to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and their cell wall components. J Immunol. 2001 Feb 1;166(3):1938-44. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.166.3.1938. [PubMed:11160242 ]
  10. Visintin A, Mazzoni A, Spitzer JA, Segal DM: Secreted MD-2 is a large polymeric protein that efficiently confers lipopolysaccharide sensitivity to Toll-like receptor 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Oct 9;98(21):12156-61. doi: 10.1073/pnas.211445098. Epub 2001 Oct 2. [PubMed:11593030 ]
  11. Mullen GE, Kennedy MN, Visintin A, Mazzoni A, Leifer CA, Davies DR, Segal DM: The role of disulfide bonds in the assembly and function of MD-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Apr 1;100(7):3919-24. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0630495100. Epub 2003 Mar 17. [PubMed:12642668 ]