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HMDB Protein ID HMDBP14644
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Name Syntaxin-1A
  1. Neuron-specific antigen HPC-1
Gene Name STX1A
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Not Available
Specific Function Plays an essential role in hormone and neurotransmitter calcium-dependent exocytosis and endocytosis (PubMed:26635000). Part of the SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment Receptor) complex composed of SNAP25, STX1A and VAMP2 which mediates the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane. STX1A and SNAP25 are localized on the plasma membrane while VAMP2 resides in synaptic vesicles. The pairing of the three SNAREs from the N-terminal SNARE motifs to the C-terminal anchors leads to the formation of the SNARE complex, which brings membranes into close proximity and results in final fusion. Participates in the calcium-dependent regulation of acrosomal exocytosis in sperm (PubMed:23091057). Plays also an important role in the exocytosis of hormones such as insulin or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (By similarity).
  • Amphetamine addiction
  • Huntington disease
  • Insulin secretion
  • Pathways of neurodegeneration - multiple diseases
  • SNARE interactions in vesicular transport
  • Synaptic vesicle cycle
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Biological Process
response to gravity
positive regulation of neurotransmitter secretion
positive regulation of excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential
intracellular protein transport
positive regulation of calcium ion-dependent exocytosis
synaptic vesicle fusion to presynaptic active zone membrane
vesicle docking
vesicle fusion
insulin secretion
synaptic vesicle endocytosis
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway
protein sumoylation
neurotransmitter transport
neurotransmitter secretion
positive regulation of catecholamine secretion
positive regulation of norepinephrine secretion
regulation of synaptic vesicle priming
regulation of insulin secretion
secretion by cell
SNARE complex assembly
synaptic vesicle docking
synaptic vesicle exocytosis
protein insertion into ER membrane
calcium ion-dependent exocytosis
Cellular Component
plasma membrane
synaptic vesicle
voltage-gated potassium channel complex
secretory granule
extracellular region
integral component of presynaptic membrane
nuclear membrane
presynaptic active zone membrane
SNARE complex
glutamatergic synapse
integral component of synaptic vesicle membrane
synaptobrevin 2-SNAP-25-syntaxin-1a complex
synaptobrevin 2-SNAP-25-syntaxin-1a-complexin I complex
synaptobrevin 2-SNAP-25-syntaxin-1a-complexin II complex
endomembrane system
neuron projection
postsynaptic density
integral to membrane
Molecular Function
protein N-terminus binding
protein-containing complex binding
calcium-dependent protein binding
calcium channel inhibitor activity
chloride channel inhibitor activity
ion channel binding
kinase binding
SNAP receptor activity
SNARE binding
protein domain specific binding
myosin head/neck binding
ATP-dependent protein binding
identical protein binding
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Not Available
Locus Not Available
SNPs Not Available
Gene Sequence Not Available
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 288
Molecular Weight 33023.095
Theoretical pI 5.236
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions
  • 266-286;
Protein Sequence Not Available
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q16623
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name STX1A_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID Not Available
GeneCard ID Not Available
GenAtlas ID Not Available
HGNC ID Not Available
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O'Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH, Wilson RK: The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7. Nature. 2003 Jul 10;424(6945):157-64. [PubMed:12853948 ]
  3. DeGiorgis JA, Jaffe H, Moreira JE, Carlotti CG Jr, Leite JP, Pant HC, Dosemeci A: Phosphoproteomic analysis of synaptosomes from human cerebral cortex. J Proteome Res. 2005 Mar-Apr;4(2):306-15. [PubMed:15822905 ]
  4. Zhang R, Maksymowych AB, Simpson LL: Cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA encoding human syntaxin 1A, a polypeptide essential for exocytosis. Gene. 1995 Jul 4;159(2):293-4. doi: 10.1016/0378-1119(95)00152-v. [PubMed:7622072 ]
  5. Osborne LR, Soder S, Shi XM, Pober B, Costa T, Scherer SW, Tsui LC: Hemizygous deletion of the syntaxin 1A gene in individuals with Williams syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 Aug;61(2):449-52. doi: 10.1086/514850. [PubMed:9311751 ]
  6. Wu YQ, Bejjani BA, Tsui LC, Mandel A, Osborne LR, Shaffer LG: Refinement of the genomic structure of STX1A and mutation analysis in nondeletion Williams syndrome patients. Am J Med Genet. 2002 Apr 22;109(2):121-4. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.10321. [PubMed:11977160 ]
  7. Nakayama T, Fujiwara T, Miyazawa A, Asakawa S, Shimizu N, Shimizu Y, Mikoshiba K, Akagawa K: Mapping of the human HPC-1/syntaxin 1A gene (STX1A) to chromosome 7 band q11.2. Genomics. 1997 May 15;42(1):173-6. doi: 10.1006/geno.1997.4650. [PubMed:9177791 ]
  8. Nakayama T, Mikoshiba K, Yamamori T, Akagawa K: Expression of syntaxin 1C, an alternative splice variant of HPC-1/syntaxin 1A, is enhanced by phorbol-ester stimulation in astroglioma: participation of the PKC signaling pathway. FEBS Lett. 2003 Feb 11;536(1-3):209-14. doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(03)00015-2. [PubMed:12586365 ]
  9. Botta A, Sangiuolo F, Calza L, Giardino L, Potenza S, Novelli G, Dallapiccola B: Expression analysis and protein localization of the human HPC-1/syntaxin 1A, a gene deleted in Williams syndrome. Genomics. 1999 Dec 15;62(3):525-8. doi: 10.1006/geno.1999.5987. [PubMed:10644452 ]
  10. Tian JH, Das S, Sheng ZH: Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of syntaxin-1A by the death-associated protein (DAP) kinase regulates its interaction with Munc18. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jul 11;278(28):26265-74. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M300492200. Epub 2003 May 2. [PubMed:12730201 ]
  11. Su Q, Cai Q, Gerwin C, Smith CL, Sheng ZH: Syntabulin is a microtubule-associated protein implicated in syntaxin transport in neurons. Nat Cell Biol. 2004 Oct;6(10):941-53. doi: 10.1038/ncb1169. Epub 2004 Sep 19. [PubMed:15459722 ]
  12. Rodriguez F, Zanetti MN, Mayorga LS, Tomes CN: Munc18-1 controls SNARE protein complex assembly during human sperm acrosomal exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2012 Dec 21;287(52):43825-39. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.409649. Epub 2012 Oct 22. [PubMed:23091057 ]
  13. Craig TJ, Anderson D, Evans AJ, Girach F, Henley JM: SUMOylation of Syntaxin1A regulates presynaptic endocytosis. Sci Rep. 2015 Dec 4;5:17669. doi: 10.1038/srep17669. [PubMed:26635000 ]