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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-04-23 20:53:27 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00022
  • HMDB0006022
  • HMDB06022
Metabolite Identification
Common Name3-Methoxytyramine
Description3-Methoxytyramine, also known as 3-O-methyldopamine, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as methoxyphenols. Methoxyphenols are compounds containing a methoxy group attached to the benzene ring of a phenol moiety. It is formed by the introduction of a methyl group to dopamine by the enzyme catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). 3-Methoxytyramine is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). 3-Methoxytyramine exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Within humans, 3-methoxytyramine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, 3-methoxytyramine can be converted into homovanillin; which is mediated by the enzyme amine oxidase [flavin-containing] a. In addition, 3-methoxytyramine and pyrocatechol can be biosynthesized from dopamine and guaiacol through the action of the enzyme catechol O-methyltransferase. Originally thought to be physiologically inactive, 3-MT has recently been shown to act as an agonist of human TAAR1.3-Methoxytyramine occurs naturally in the prickly pear cactus (genus Opuntia), and is in general widespread throughout the Cactaceae. It has also been found in crown gall tumors on Nicotiana sp. 3-MT can be further metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) to form homovanillic acid (HVA), which is then typically excreted in the urine. In humans, 3-methoxytyramine is a trace amine that occurs as a metabolite of dopamine. In humans, 3-methoxytyramine is involved in the metabolic disorder called tyrosinemia, transient, of the newborn. 3-Methoxytyramine is a potentially toxic compound.
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyl amineHMDB
3-Methoxytyramine hydrochlorideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H13NO2
Average Molecular Weight167.205
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight167.094628665
IUPAC Name4-(2-aminoethyl)-2-methoxyphenol
Traditional Namemethoxytyramine
CAS Registry Number554-52-9
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as methoxyphenols. Methoxyphenols are compounds containing a methoxy group attached to the benzene ring of a phenol moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
Sub ClassMethoxyphenols
Direct ParentMethoxyphenols
Alternative Parents
  • Methoxyphenol
  • Phenethylamine
  • Anisole
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Phenol ether
  • Methoxybenzene
  • 2-arylethylamine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Ether
  • Primary amine
  • Amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-0.08SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility5.36 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.39ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.64ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area55.48 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity47.73 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability18.21 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00dr-2900000000-57b1653ec21d5aed99aeSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dr-2900000000-57b1653ec21d5aed99aeSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-6900000000-d04baf61f1b9c22278b3Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00e9-9550000000-cf6955d311ff0f030176Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-0900000000-4e9a34f44fa20fd4d805Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9200000000-78e8a8758da00cc24c66Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014l-9000000000-146285917801bb44d792Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-74c2d306bf6eb6a07be2Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-d1ca0694bd5e8bd36f69Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0gb9-0900000000-cb0f2ccb662476519ddeSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0uxr-0900000000-ef5b01d09a8667741704Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0uy1-9600000000-4ac4df62e408ef8fd47cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-2f9cbc34c2bce5dc77adSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-55720e7caeb2db7b0bc1Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-006x-6900000000-6902b729d46692ea6897Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0025 (0.0016-0.0029) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.00377 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0014 +/- 0.0002 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.31-0.55 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.014 (0.0052-0.028) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.29-0.54 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0370-0.118 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0130-0.0290 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0005 +/- 0.0003 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedParkinson's Disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.217-0.318 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleBrunner Syndrome details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0140-0.0340 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleBrunner Syndrome details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Parkinson's disease
  1. Loeffler DA, LeWitt PA, DeMaggio AJ, Juneau PL, Milbury PE, Matson WR: Markers of dopamine depletion and compensatory response in striatum and cerebrospinal fluid. J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect. 1995;9(1):45-53. [PubMed:7605589 ]
Brunner Syndrome
  1. Brunner HG, Nelen MR, van Zandvoort P, Abeling NG, van Gennip AH, Wolters EC, Kuiper MA, Ropers HH, van Oost BA: X-linked borderline mental retardation with prominent behavioral disturbance: phenotype, genetic localization, and evidence for disturbed monoamine metabolism. Am J Hum Genet. 1993 Jun;52(6):1032-9. [PubMed:8503438 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB021876
KNApSAcK IDC00042132
Chemspider ID1606
KEGG Compound IDC05587
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID46076
Wikipedia Link3-Methoxytyramine
PubChem Compound1669
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID742324
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceKametani, Tetsuji; Takano, Seiichi; Karibe, Etsuo. Syntheses of heterocyclic compounds. LXXXVII. Simplified synthesis of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy- and 3-methoxy-4-tosyloxyphenethylamine. Yakugaku Zasshi (1963), 83(11), 1035-9.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Leysen JE, Wynants J, Eens A, Janssen PA: Ketanserin reduces a particular monoamine pool in peripheral tissues. Mol Pharmacol. 1989 Mar;35(3):375-80. [PubMed:2927387 ]
  2. Faraj BA, Lawson DH, Nixon DW, Murray DR, Camp VM, Ali FM, Black M, Stacciarini W, Tarcan Y: Melanoma detection by enzyme-radioimmunoassay of L-dopa, dopamine, and 3-O-methyldopamine in urine. Clin Chem. 1981 Jan;27(1):108-12. [PubMed:7004664 ]
  3. Muskiet FA, Thomasson CG, Gerding AM, Fremouw-Ottevangers DC, Nagel GT, Wolthers BG: Determination of catecholamines and their 3-O-methylated metabolites in urine by mass fragmentography with use of deuterated internal standards. Clin Chem. 1979 Mar;25(3):453-60. [PubMed:262188 ]
  4. Sparks DL, Hunsaker JC 3rd, Slevin JT: Postmortem accumulation of 3-methoxytyramine in the brain. N Engl J Med. 1984 Aug 23;311(8):540. [PubMed:6749220 ]
  5. Peterson ZD, Collins DC, Bowerbank CR, Lee ML, Graves SW: Determination of catecholamines and metanephrines in urine by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Sep 5;776(2):221-9. [PubMed:12138004 ]
  6. Beck O, Faull KF: Extractive acylation and mass spectrometric assay of 3-methoxytyramine, normetanephrine, and metanephrine in cerebrospinal fluid. Anal Biochem. 1985 Sep;149(2):492-500. [PubMed:4073504 ]
  7. Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ: Sources and significance of plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jun;305(3):800-11. Epub 2003 Mar 20. [PubMed:12649306 ]
  8. Oeltmann T, Carson R, Shannon JR, Ketch T, Robertson D: Assessment of O-methylated catecholamine levels in plasma and urine for diagnosis of autonomic disorders. Auton Neurosci. 2004 Nov 30;116(1-2):1-10. [PubMed:15556832 ]
  9. Yui K, Ikemoto S, Goto K: Factors for susceptibility to episode recurrence in spontaneous recurrence of methamphetamine psychosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Jun;965:292-304. [PubMed:12105105 ]
  10. Uchikura K, Horikawa R, Tanimura T, Kabasawa Y: Determination of catecholamines by radioenzymatic assay using ion-pair liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1981 Apr 10;223(1):41-50. [PubMed:7251775 ]
  11. Carlsson A, Lindqvist M, Kehr W: Postmortal accumulation of 3-methoxytyramine in brain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1974;284(4):365-72. [PubMed:4281061 ]
  12. Shoup RE, Kissinger PT: Determination of urinary normetanephrine, metanephrine, and 3-methoxytyramine by liquid chromatography, with amperometric detection. Clin Chem. 1977 Jul;23(7):1268-74. [PubMed:872373 ]
  13. Wester P, Puu G, Reiz S, Winblad B, Wester PO: Increased monoamine metabolite concentrations and cholinesterase activities in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute stroke. Acta Neurol Scand. 1987 Dec;76(6):473-9. [PubMed:3434205 ]
  14. Yui K, Goto K, Ikemoto S: The role of noradrenergic and dopaminergic hyperactivity in the development of spontaneous recurrence of methamphetamine psychosis and susceptibility to episode recurrence. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Oct;1025:296-306. [PubMed:15542730 ]
  15. Rajput AH, Fenton ME, Di Paolo T, Sitte H, Pifl C, Hornykiewicz O: Human brain dopamine metabolism in levodopa-induced dyskinesia and wearing-off. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2004 Jun;10(4):221-6. [PubMed:15120096 ]


General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
3-Methoxytyramine + Water + Oxygen → Homovanillin + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
3-Methoxytyramine + Water + Oxygen → Homovanillin + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOPA, alpha-methyl DOPA and isoproterenol.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
S-Adenosylmethionine + Dopamine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 3-Methoxytyraminedetails