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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-02-27 20:29:45 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000092
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00092
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDimethylglycine
DescriptionDimethylglycine (DMG) is an amino acid derivative found in the cells of all plants and animals and can be obtained in the diet in small amounts from grains and meat. The human body produces DMG when metabolizing choline into glycine. Dimethylglycine that is not metabolized in the liver is transported by the circulatory system to body tissue. Dimethylglycine was popular with Russian athletes and cosmonauts owing to its reputed ability to increase endurance and reduce fatigue. DMG is also a byproduct of homocysteine metabolism. Homocysteine and betaine are converted to methionine and N,N-dimethylglycine by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. DMG in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of legumes. It is also a microbial metabolite (PMID: 25901889 ).
Structure
Data?1582752111
Synonyms
ValueSource
(Dimethylamino)acetic acidChEBI
2-(Dimethylamino)acetic acidChEBI
N,N-Dimethylaminoacetic acidChEBI
N-MethylsarcosineChEBI
(Dimethylamino)acetateGenerator
2-(Dimethylamino)acetateGenerator
N,N-DimethylaminoacetateGenerator
N,N-DimethylglycineHMDB
N-Methylsarcosine N,N-dimethyl-glycineHMDB
Dimethylglycine, monopotassium saltHMDB
Dimethylglycine, sodium saltHMDB
Dimethylglycine, calcium saltHMDB
Dimethylglycine monohydrochlorideHMDB
2-(N,N-Dimethylamino)acetic acidHMDB
DMGHMDB
DimethylglycineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H9NO2
Average Molecular Weight103.1198
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight103.063328537
IUPAC Name2-(dimethylamino)acetic acid
Traditional Namedimethylglycine
CAS Registry Number1118-68-9
SMILES
CN(C)CC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H9NO2/c1-5(2)3-4(6)7/h3H2,1-2H3,(H,6,7)
InChI KeyFFDGPVCHZBVARC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Tertiary amine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point185.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-2.91TSAI,RS ET AL. (1991)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility939 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.7ALOGPS
logP-3.1ChemAxon
logS0.96ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.69ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.54 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity26.07 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.47 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-03gi-3900000000-fe42012cdac3329e6581Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-03gi-3900000000-fe42012cdac3329e6581Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-a221fa71e9aae0e6fb23Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9100000000-055c11ef221fe49aa4a4Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9200000000-c3fc59f00bbe1e009053Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-7f6039bf537452ff6c93Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00dj-9100000000-b9c7546951d9f51f58d0Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-2900000000-39eb87f9d7bffb116792Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-c67140c27d7ca787f694Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-9c9075d302e11b82ee64Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-5c3302b240b5bdfde85dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-4ec4602699db0863421fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0zfr-6900000000-61f31e5540076abc389dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9100000000-635be273cdf7a4cdfe53Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0zfr-5900000000-5ca66452e93663c4d82aSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9200000000-0e2fb3ac0a1721a846b1Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-02624b93137883b214adSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-02624b93137883b214adSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0udi-2900000000-39eb87f9d7bffb116792Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-c67140c27d7ca787f694Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-9c9075d302e11b82ee64Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-5c3302b240b5bdfde85dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-9950e0391541ef1aaf5eSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-1900000000-31ffda90df5fe20e70f7Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-4900000000-a17ce890abbfbddfcf1fSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01ox-9000000000-55b0830064f53387ba8fSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-2900000000-22f21e8a500976f6e227Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0zfr-6900000000-ffa777c8fc6d4a9f2189Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9100000000-c6e68387a8faa34658b0Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Placenta
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1-5 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified<3.700 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.6 (1.8-3.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.9 (1.1-3.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4.90 +/- 1.23 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (24-38years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.068 +/- 3.307 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.087 (0.058-0.26) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.4 (1.6-10.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.2 (0.8-11.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.4 (0.7-10.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified15-220 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1-126 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified221 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleDimethylglycinuria details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Uremia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.4 (3.1-7.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Kidney disease
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.6 (4.8 - 10.1) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Kidney disease
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4.8 (3.6-6.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Kidney disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUnclassified IBD details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.09 +/- 8.203 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified441-457 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleDimethylglycinuria details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Kidney disease
  1. McGregor DO, Dellow WJ, Lever M, George PM, Robson RA, Chambers ST: Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Kidney Int. 2001 Jun;59(6):2267-72. [PubMed:11380830 ]
Uremia
  1. Vanholder R, De Smet R, Glorieux G, Argiles A, Baurmeister U, Brunet P, Clark W, Cohen G, De Deyn PP, Deppisch R, Descamps-Latscha B, Henle T, Jorres A, Lemke HD, Massy ZA, Passlick-Deetjen J, Rodriguez M, Stegmayr B, Stenvinkel P, Tetta C, Wanner C, Zidek W: Review on uremic toxins: classification, concentration, and interindividual variability. Kidney Int. 2003 May;63(5):1934-43. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00924.x. [PubMed:12675874 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Lin Y, Ma C, Liu C, Wang Z, Yang J, Liu X, Shen Z, Wu R: NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in patients with colorectal cancer. Oncotarget. 2016 May 17;7(20):29454-64. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8762. [PubMed:27107423 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  1. Moolenaar SH, Poggi-Bach J, Engelke UF, Corstiaensen JM, Heerschap A, de Jong JG, Binzak BA, Vockley J, Wevers RA: Defect in dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, a new inborn error of metabolism: NMR spectroscopy study. Clin Chem. 1999 Apr;45(4):459-64. [PubMed:10102904 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB02083
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021893
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID653
KEGG Compound IDC01026
BioCyc IDDIMETHYL-GLYCINE
BiGG ID36652
Wikipedia LinkDimethylglycine
METLIN ID277
PubChem Compound673
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17724
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDDMGLY
References
Synthesis ReferenceLai, Mei-Chin; Wang, Chia-Chi; Chuang, Ming-Jen; Wu, Yen-Chi; Lee, Yu-Chien. Effects of substrate and potassium on the betaine-synthesizing enzyme glycine sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase from a halophilic methanoarchaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis. Res Microbiol. 2006 Dec;157(10):948-55. Epub 2006 Oct 26. Pubmed: 17098399
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Binzak BA, Vockley JG, Jenkins RB, Vockley J: Structure and analysis of the human dimethylglycine dehydrogenase gene. Mol Genet Metab. 2000 Mar;69(3):181-7. [PubMed:10767172 ]
  2. McGregor DO, Dellow WJ, Lever M, George PM, Robson RA, Chambers ST: Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Kidney Int. 2001 Jun;59(6):2267-72. [PubMed:11380830 ]
  3. Moolenaar SH, Poggi-Bach J, Engelke UF, Corstiaensen JM, Heerschap A, de Jong JG, Binzak BA, Vockley J, Wevers RA: Defect in dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, a new inborn error of metabolism: NMR spectroscopy study. Clin Chem. 1999 Apr;45(4):459-64. [PubMed:10102904 ]
  4. Look MP, Riezler R, Reichel C, Brensing KA, Rockstroh JK, Stabler SP, Spengler U, Berthold HK, Sauerbruch T: Is the increase in serum cystathionine levels in patients with liver cirrhosis a consequence of impaired homocysteine transsulfuration at the level of gamma-cystathionase? Scand J Gastroenterol. 2000 Aug;35(8):866-72. [PubMed:10994627 ]
  5. Cicek G, Vuorinen T, Stahle I, Stepanek P, Freudenberg N, Brandsch R: Coxsackievirus B3 infection induces anti-flavoprotein antibodies in mice. Clin Exp Immunol. 2000 Dec;122(3):404-9. [PubMed:11122247 ]
  6. Lever M, George PM, Dellow WJ, Scott RS, Chambers ST: Homocysteine, glycine betaine, and N,N-dimethylglycine in patients attending a lipid clinic. Metabolism. 2005 Jan;54(1):1-14. [PubMed:15562374 ]
  7. Xia JH, Yu KP, Liu CY, Pan Q, Zheng D, Dai HP: [Molecular clonging of the human dimethyglycine dehydrogenase-like gene (DMGDHL1) from the sarcosinemia critical region at 9q34]. Yi Chuan Xue Bao. 1999;26(6):591-7. [PubMed:10876657 ]
  8. Laryea MD, Steinhagen F, Pawliczek S, Wendel U: Simple method for the routine determination of betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine in blood and urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Sep;44(9):1937-41. [PubMed:9732980 ]
  9. Binzak BA, Wevers RA, Moolenaar SH, Lee YM, Hwu WL, Poggi-Bach J, Engelke UF, Hoard HM, Vockley JG, Vockley J: Cloning of dimethylglycine dehydrogenase and a new human inborn error of metabolism, dimethylglycine dehydrogenase deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Apr;68(4):839-47. Epub 2001 Feb 28. [PubMed:11231903 ]
  10. Jansen M, Hansen TA: Non-growth-associated demethylation of dimethylsulfoniopropionate by (homo)acetogenic bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001 Jan;67(1):300-6. [PubMed:11133459 ]
  11. Upadhyaya S, Banerjee G: Type 2 diabetes and gut microbiome: at the intersection of known and unknown. Gut Microbes. 2015;6(2):85-92. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2015.1024918. [PubMed:25901889 ]
  12. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]
  13. Koistinen VM (2019). Effects of Food Processing and Gut Microbial Metabolism on Whole Grain Phytochemicals: A Metabolomics Approach. In Publications of the University of Eastern Finland. Dissertations in Health Sciences., no 510 (pp. 26-58). University of Eastern Finland. [ISBN:978-952-61-3088-0 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
DMGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI17
Molecular weight:
96810.135
Reactions
Dimethylglycine + electron-transfer flavoprotein + Water → Sarcosine + Formaldehyde + reduced electron-transfer flavoproteindetails
Dimethylglycine + Electron-transferring flavoprotein + Water → Sarcosine + Formaldehyde + Reduced electron-transferring flavoproteindetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
Dimethylglycine → 6-{[2-(dimethylamino)acetyl]oxy}-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Involved in the regulation of homocysteine metabolism. Converts betaine and homocysteine to dimethylglycine and methionine, respectively. This reaction is also required for the irreversible oxidation of choline.
Gene Name:
BHMT
Uniprot ID:
Q93088
Molecular weight:
44998.205
Reactions
Betaine + Homocysteine → Dimethylglycine + L-Methioninedetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Involved in the regulation of homocysteine metabolism. Converts homocysteine to methionine using S-methylmethionine (SMM) as a methyl donor.
Gene Name:
BHMT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9H2M3
Molecular weight:
33166.69
Reactions
Betaine + Homocysteine → Dimethylglycine + L-Methioninedetails