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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-09-07 16:24:08 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00176
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMaleic acid
DescriptionMaleic acid is a dicarboxylic acid, a molecule with two carboxyl groups. It consists of an ethylene group flanked by two carboxylic acid groups. Maleic acid is the cis isomer of butenedioic acid, whereas fumaric acid is the trans isomer. The cis isomer is the less stable one of the two; the difference in heat of combustion is 22.7 kJ/mol. The physical properties of maleic acid are very different from that of fumaric acid. Maleic acid is soluble in water whereas fumaric acid is not and the melting point of maleic acid (130 - 131 oC) is also much lower than that of fumaric acid (287 oC). Maleic acid is converted into maleic anhydride by dehydration, to malic acid by hydration, and to succinic acid by hydrogenation. Maleic acid is used in making polyesters for fibre-reinforced laminated moldings and paint vehicles. More specifically it is used in the manufacture of phthalic-type alkyd and polyester resins, surface coatings, copolymers, plasticizers, lubricant additives and agricultural chemicals. It is also found in adhesives and sealants and as a preservative for oils and fats. In the natural world, maleic acid has been identified in ginseng, pineapple, cacao plants, sour cherries and corn. A large number of microbes are able to convert maleic acid to D-malate using the enzyme maleate hydratase (PMID: 1444397 ).
(Z)-2-Butenedioic acidChEBI
(Z)-Butenedioic acidChEBI
cis-1,2-Ethylenedicarboxylic acidChEBI
cis-But-2-enedioic acidChEBI
cis-Butenedioic acidChEBI
Toxilic acidChEBI
(2Z)-2-Butenedioic acidHMDB
(2Z)-But-2-enedioic acidHMDB
(2Z)-Butene-2-dioic acidHMDB
2-Butenedioic acidHMDB
cis-2-Butenedioic acidHMDB
Kyselina maleinovaHMDB
Maleinic acidHMDB
Malenic acidHMDB
Malezid CMHMDB
Scotchbond multipurpose etchantHMDB
Maleic acid, disodium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, monocopper (2+) saltMeSH
Maleic acid, potassium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, sodium saltMeSH
Sodium maleateMeSH
Hydrogen maleateMeSH
Maleic acid, ammonium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, calcium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, iron saltMeSH
Maleic acid, neodymium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, dipotassium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, monoammonium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, monosodium saltMeSH
Chemical FormulaC4H4O4
Average Molecular Weight116.0722
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight116.010958616
IUPAC Name(2Z)-but-2-enedioic acid
Traditional Namemaleic acid
CAS Registry Number110-16-7
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Biological role:

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point130.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility441 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP-0.48SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility24.1 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity24.61 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability9.19 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon


Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-170a9d63d0cb31451c1d2014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-001j-5940000000-59e85bafafc1675e24ad2014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxs-9000000000-d768b92d45a58ec32ec72017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9000000000-617284552377852c7c462017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0910000000-15f30f525d5ea74dc9d42017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-170a9d63d0cb31451c1d2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-001j-5940000000-59e85bafafc1675e24ad2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-4b46518e6c4f0c6724f22017-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01ba-9200000000-52f88e04bac0ff8cdf172017-08-28View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-8920000000-06da44f348d0fe0358b32017-10-06View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00xr-9300000000-294308ad63fd5b48e73b2021-09-05View Spectrum


Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9200000000-77d8b2c7abcec2e3d5a12012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9200000000-8d8a8b14a723e03632272012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0229-9700000000-061b31801a2ae4703fc52012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6L) , Positivesplash10-0uxs-9000000000-d768b92d45a58ec32ec72012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-2900000000-6bbe33cf398e663af0fc2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-550ee9efb3babd781bca2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-18e922c569242e2111e72012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-f344fe84d76f2bf06f912012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-00fu-9000000000-6f90988f5d68f87b52d22012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-00di-9400000000-99bc7f4db87479b4122a2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03di-2900000000-6bbe33cf398e663af0fc2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-550ee9efb3babd781bca2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-18e922c569242e2111e72017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-f344fe84d76f2bf06f912017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00fu-9000000000-6f90988f5d68f87b52d22017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-00di-9400000000-99bc7f4db87479b4122a2017-09-14View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014j-9800000000-dbf34563376daeb2901f2017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00xs-9200000000-113bf08cdc77707ed3ad2017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00fr-9000000000-f32d7ec65e8649bc2b0a2017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-2900000000-408d53a9fff7acc8ca232017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-6900000000-f149e9e5a34e27dd4d4e2017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0fxt-9000000000-cae5f71dc27daaf17d9e2017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-3d34cd791255c022876a2021-09-08View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-55a5c43ec34fdd2cb0a42021-09-08View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0uk9-9000000000-7c9639a65d534cd8ff972021-09-08View Spectrum


Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 1H] 2D NMR Spectrum (predicted)2012-12-04View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, predicted)2012-12-05View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot Available
      Not Available
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
UrineDetected and Quantified5.447 +/- 6.8 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
UrineDetected and Quantified10.4 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.7 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.7 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.1 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.4 (0.3-0.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
UrineDetected and Quantified10.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.1 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
UrineDetected and Quantified1.585 +/- 1.123 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB04299
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB008113
KNApSAcK IDC00007417
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC01384
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMaleic_acid
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound444266
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID18300
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDMDB00000084
Synthesis ReferenceDethloff, Christian; Barbarino, Sergio. Process temperature optimization in the manufacture of maleic acid by the hydrolysis of maleic anhydride. Eur. Pat. Appl. (1998), 7 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Kotikoski H, Oksala O, Vapaatalo H, Aine E: Aqueous humour flow after a single oral dose of isosorbide-5-mononitrate in healthy volunteers. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2003 Aug;81(4):355-60. [PubMed:12859262 ]
  2. Herreras JM, Pastor JC, Calonge M, Asensio VM: Ocular surface alteration after long-term treatment with an antiglaucomatous drug. Ophthalmology. 1992 Jul;99(7):1082-8. [PubMed:1495787 ]
  3. Klose T, Welzel PB, Werner C: Protein adsorption from flowing solutions on pure and maleic acid copolymer modified glass particles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2006 Aug 1;51(1):1-9. Epub 2006 May 17. [PubMed:16797943 ]
  4. Renner L, Pompe T, Salchert K, Werner C: Dynamic alterations of fibronectin layers on copolymer substrates with graded physicochemical characteristics. Langmuir. 2004 Mar 30;20(7):2928-33. [PubMed:15835174 ]
  5. Gong Z, Lv Y, Huang Y, Zhang Z: Determination of ergometrine maleate by fluorescence detection. Luminescence. 2005 May-Jun;20(3):124-8. [PubMed:15924314 ]
  6. Goes MF, Sinhoreti MA, Consani S, Silva MA: Morphological effect of the type, concentration and etching time of acid solutions on enamel and dentin surfaces. Braz Dent J. 1998;9(1):3-10. [PubMed:9835798 ]
  7. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [PubMed:8087979 ]
  8. Gallagher RM: Menstrual migraine and intermittent ergonovine therapy. Headache. 1989 Jun;29(6):366-7. [PubMed:2759844 ]
  9. Seki T, Wakabayashi M, Nakagawa T, Imamura M, Tamai T, Nishimura A, Yamashiki N, Okamura A, Inoue K: Hepatic infarction following percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998 Nov;10(11):915-8. [PubMed:9872612 ]
  10. Snider BJ, Moss JL, Revilla FJ, Lee CS, Wheeler VC, Macdonald ME, Choi DW: Neocortical neurons cultured from mice with expanded CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene: unaltered vulnerability to excitotoxins and other insults. Neuroscience. 2003;120(3):617-25. [PubMed:12895502 ]
  11. Lavit M, Saivin S, Boudra H, Michel F, Martin A, Cahiez G, Labaune JP, Chomard JM, Houin G: Determination of trimebutine and desmethyl-trimebutine in human plasma by HPLC. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000 Jul;50(7):640-4. [PubMed:10965422 ]
  12. Strasser G, Grabner G: The influence of long-term treatment with timolol on human tear lysozyme albumin content. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1982;218(2):93-5. [PubMed:7075967 ]
  13. Glazunova OO, Korepanova EA, Efimov VS, Smirnov AI, Vladimirov YuA: A synthetic polycation, a copolymer of 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazole iodide with maleic acid diethyl ester, increases passive ionic permeability in erythrocyte membranes modified by fatty acids. Membr Cell Biol. 1998;12(3):401-9. [PubMed:10024972 ]
  14. Yoshida H, Onda M, Tajiri T, Uchida E, Arima Y, Mamada Y, Yamamoto K, Kaneko M, Terada Y, Kumazaki T: Experience with intraarterial infusion of styrene maleic acid neocarzinostatin (SMANCS)-lipiodol in pancreatic cancer. Hepatogastroenterology. 1999 Jul-Aug;46(28):2612-5. [PubMed:10522050 ]
  15. Benderli Y, Gokce K, Buyukgokcesu S: In vitro shear bond strength of adhesive to normal and fluoridated enamel under various contaminated conditions. Quintessence Int. 1999 Aug;30(8):570-5. [PubMed:10635272 ]
  16. Liu Y, Yanai R, Lu Y, Hirano S, Sagara T, Nishida T: Effects of antiglaucoma drugs on collagen gel contraction mediated by human corneal fibroblasts. J Glaucoma. 2006 Jun;15(3):255-9. [PubMed:16778650 ]
  17. Dorr J, Roth K, Zurbuchen U, Deisz R, Bechmann I, Lehmann TN, Meier S, Nitsch R, Zipp F: Tumor-necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing-ligand (TRAIL)-mediated death of neurons in living human brain tissue is inhibited by flupirtine-maleate. J Neuroimmunol. 2005 Oct;167(1-2):204-9. [PubMed:16043230 ]
  18. Turcan RG, Hillbeck D, Hartley TE, Gilbert PJ, Coe RA, Troke JA, Vose CW: Disposition of [14C]velnacrine maleate in rats, dogs, and humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 1993 Nov-Dec;21(6):1037-47. [PubMed:7905382 ]
  19. Chen CN, Huang GF, Guo MK, Lin CP: An in vitro study on restoring bond strength of a GIC to saliva contaminated enamel under unrinse condition. J Dent. 2002 Jul-Aug;30(5-6):189-94. [PubMed:12450709 ]
  20. Daykin CA, Foxall PJ, Connor SC, Lindon JC, Nicholson JK: The comparison of plasma deproteinization methods for the detection of low-molecular-weight metabolites by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Anal Biochem. 2002 May 15;304(2):220-30. [PubMed:12009699 ]
  21. van der Werf MJ, van den Tweel WJ, Hartmans S: Screening for microorganisms producing D-malate from maleate. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992 Sep;58(9):2854-60. doi: 10.1128/aem.58.9.2854-2860.1992. [PubMed:1444397 ]