You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-02-27 20:29:53 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000262
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00262
Metabolite Identification
Common NameThymine
DescriptionThymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxypyrimidines. These are organic compounds containing a hydroxyl group attached to a pyrimidine ring. Pyrimidine is a 6-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen centers at the 1- and 3- ring positions. Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T. Thymine is a drug. Thymine is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). Thymine was first isolated in 1893 by Albrecht Kossel and Albert Neumann from calves' thymus glands, hence its name. Thymine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Within humans, thymine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, thymine and deoxyribose 1-phosphate can be biosynthesized from thymidine; which is mediated by the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase. In addition, thymine can be converted into dihydrothymine through the action of the enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [nadp(+)]. In humans, thymine is involved in the metabolic disorder called the beta-ureidopropionase deficiency pathway. Outside of the human body, thymine has been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as mammee apples, nances, angelica, rocket salad (ssp.), and common chokecherries. This could make thymine a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Thymine is a potentially toxic compound. Thymine has been found to be associated with several diseases such as temporomandibular joint disorder, colorectal cancer, and thymidine treatment; also thymine has been linked to several inborn metabolic disorders including dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency and beta-ureidopropionase deficiency. In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil in most cases. In March 2015, NASA scientists reported that, for the first time, complex DNA and RNA organic compounds of life, including uracil, cytosine and thymine, have been formed in the laboratory under outer space conditions, using starting chemicals, such as pyrimidine, found in meteorites. One of the common mutations of DNA involves two adjacent thymines or cytosine, which, in presence of ultraviolet light, may form thymine dimers, causing "kinks" in the DNA molecule that inhibit normal function. Thymine has not been found in meteorites, which suggests the first strands of DNA had to look elsewhere to obtain this building block.
Structure
Data?1582752119
Synonyms
ValueSource
2,4-Dihydroxy-5-methylpyrimidineChEBI
5-Methyl-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedioneChEBI
5-Methylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dioneChEBI
5-MethyluracilChEBI
TChEBI
ThyChEBI
ThyminChEBI
4-Hydroxy-5-methylpyrimidin-2(1H)-oneHMDB
5-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2,4-dioneHMDB
5-Methyl-2,4-dihydroxypyrimidineHMDB
5-Methylpyrimidine-2,4-dioneHMDB
5 MethyluracilHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H6N2O2
Average Molecular Weight126.1133
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight126.042927446
IUPAC Name5-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2,4-dione
Traditional Namethymine
CAS Registry Number65-71-4
SMILES
CC1=CNC(=O)NC1=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H6N2O2/c1-3-2-6-5(9)7-4(3)8/h2H,1H3,(H2,6,7,8,9)
InChI KeyRWQNBRDOKXIBIV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxypyrimidines. These are organic compounds containing a hydroxyl group attached to a pyrimidine ring. Pyrimidine is a 6-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen centers at the 1- and 3- ring positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentHydroxypyrimidines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydroxypyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point320 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.82 mg/mLYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
LogP-0.62HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility10.8 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.99ALOGPS
logP-0.46ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.06ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.2 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity30.33 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.42 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0bt9-0960000000-50722d1f64f22b69e207Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0bta-0940000000-ff59d40c1a93e04954abSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-05fr-7940000000-a0ebb190eba32aceac56Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0ab9-1980000000-5b95ad97f31d8176a0c6Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9500000000-74b6d7909610070d30d0Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0bt9-0960000000-50722d1f64f22b69e207Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0bta-0940000000-ff59d40c1a93e04954abSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-05fr-7940000000-a0ebb190eba32aceac56Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ab9-1980000000-5b95ad97f31d8176a0c6Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0bta-0930000000-a2d3bc738d3f9e60aeb7Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-9500000000-33bb743c9a1a77fe4e47Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-0900000000-a3779faac812139c6333Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-0900000000-a3779faac812139c6333Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-9200000000-0e7d9466530de47896d9Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-004i-9400000000-7ff00d5a94e12e6e1701Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-9100000000-1e96fdb2525aace8b29dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-34edf89b8a99493ed897Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-7d381bc0d559ed8150e9Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-90f8edce6ae2b6f83347Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-445d07aed275008cfe2dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-056r-8900000000-96370e30b48d3270abaaSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0bwc-9600000000-b988fb9252c409b19c33Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-01q9-9100000000-8c82d68e9ec8594b1fffSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-f69c5d963b845f8b3cfbSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-3a9af2cf67d3f113fa7fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-97549ff58b84351d860cSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-01q9-7900000000-5804e303580e1273f1a2Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-deb5e6830bc01a0c870eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-9100000000-1e96fdb2525aace8b29dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-34edf89b8a99493ed897Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-1900000000-7f378c898bdb1944116eSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-057i-9400000000-df8e4d4b901c8d1334fcSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0zfr-9000000000-629132689aa512d344b2Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-878180774da717dee4aeSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-005c-9400000000-2bf425b661913858b12aSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-87ca2758dbf67661c671Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-056r-9400000000-5dd0bc0194a302d8ee95Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
  • Skin
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot Available
Normal
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified<5.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0 - 0.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified5.91 +/- 11.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified1.81 +/- 2.51 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified8.82 +/- 13.15 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
      • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified2.89 +/- 4.53 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified3.51 +/- 3.10 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.655 +/- 1.44 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.10 (0.045-0.16) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.16 (0.065-0.26) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0-9 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
    Normal
      • BC Children's Hos...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified<0.12 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.202 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.791 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0-2 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
    Normal
    details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    BloodDetected and Quantified1390.0 +/- 150.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Solid tumors
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.04 - 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedBeta-ureidopropionase deficiency details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)MalePeriodontal Probing Depth details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified2.61 +/- 2.39 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTemporomandibular joint disorder (TMD)
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified343.024 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleDihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency details
    UrineDetected and Quantified468.0684 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleDihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Thymidine treatment
    1. Leyva A, Schornagel JH, Kraal I, Wadman SK, Pinedo HM: Clinical and biochemical studies of high-dose thymidine treatment in patients with solid tumors. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1984;107(3):211-6. [PubMed:6736109 ]
    Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency
    1. van Kuilenburg AB, Meinsma R, Beke E, Assmann B, Ribes A, Lorente I, Busch R, Mayatepek E, Abeling NG, van Cruchten A, Stroomer AE, van Lenthe H, Zoetekouw L, Kulik W, Hoffmann GF, Voit T, Wevers RA, Rutsch F, van Gennip AH: beta-Ureidopropionase deficiency: an inborn error of pyrimidine degradation associated with neurological abnormalities. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Nov 15;13(22):2793-801. Epub 2004 Sep 22. [PubMed:15385443 ]
    Colorectal cancer
    1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
    2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
    3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
    Temporomandibular joint disorder
    1. (). Sugimoto et al. (2013) Physiological and environmental parameters associated with mass spectrometry-based salivary metabolomic profiles. . .
    Periodontal Probing Depth
    1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency
    1. Brockstedt M, Jakobs C, Smit LM, van Gennip AH, Berger R: A new case of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1990;13(1):121-4. [PubMed:2109146 ]
    2. G.Frauendienst-Egger, Friedrich K. Trefz (2017). MetaGene: Metabolic & Genetic Information Center (MIC: http://www.metagene.de). METAGENE consortium.
    Associated OMIM IDs
    • 613161 (Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency)
    • 114500 (Colorectal cancer)
    • 274270 (Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency)
    DrugBank IDDB03462
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB021922
    KNApSAcK IDC00001511
    Chemspider ID1103
    KEGG Compound IDC00178
    BioCyc IDNot Available
    BiGG ID34151
    Wikipedia LinkThymine
    METLIN ID290
    PubChem Compound1135
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID17821
    Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
    VMH IDNot Available
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceZhang, Shi-Ying; Wu, Da-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping. Synthesis of thymine. Zhongguo Yiyao Gongye Zazhi (1999), 30(7), 325.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Goukassian D, Gad F, Yaar M, Eller MS, Nehal US, Gilchrest BA: Mechanisms and implications of the age-associated decrease in DNA repair capacity. FASEB J. 2000 Jul;14(10):1325-34. [PubMed:10877825 ]
    2. Wassberg C, Backvall H, Diffey B, Ponten F, Berne B: Enhanced epidermal ultraviolet responses in chronically sun-exposed skin are dependent on previous sun exposure. Acta Derm Venereol. 2003;83(4):254-61. [PubMed:12926795 ]
    3. Schilsky RL, O'Laughlin K, Ratain MJ: Phase I clinical and pharmacological study of thymidine (NSC 21548) and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Res. 1986 Aug;46(8):4184-8. [PubMed:3731086 ]
    4. Maskell R, Okubadejo OA, Payne RH, Pead L: Human infections with thymine-requiring bacteria. J Med Microbiol. 1978 Feb;11(1):33-45. [PubMed:621731 ]
    5. Hofmann U, Schwab M, Seefried S, Marx C, Zanger UM, Eichelbaum M, Murdter TE: Sensitive method for the quantification of urinary pyrimidine metabolites in healthy adults by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 5;791(1-2):371-80. [PubMed:12798197 ]
    6. Ling G, Chadwick CA, Berne B, Potten CS, Ponten J, Ponten F: Epidermal p53 response and repair of thymine dimers in human skin after a single dose of ultraviolet radiation: effects of photoprotection. Acta Derm Venereol. 2001 May;81(2):81-6. [PubMed:11501666 ]
    7. Young AR, Sheehan JM, Chadwick CA, Potten CS: Protection by ultraviolet A and B sunscreens against in situ dipyrimidine photolesions in human epidermis is comparable to protection against sunburn. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Jul;115(1):37-41. [PubMed:10886505 ]
    8. Maskell R, Okubadejo OA, Payne RH: Thymine-requiring bacteria associated with co-trimoxazole therapy. Lancet. 1976 Apr 17;1(7964):834-5. [PubMed:56651 ]
    9. Courdavault S, Baudouin C, Sauvaigo S, Mouret S, Candeias S, Charveron M, Favier A, Cadet J, Douki T: Unrepaired cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers do not prevent proliferation of UV-B-irradiated cultured human fibroblasts. Photochem Photobiol. 2004 Feb;79(2):145-51. [PubMed:15068027 ]
    10. Alsarra IA, Alarifi MN: Validated liquid chromatographic determination of 5-fluorouracil in human plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 May 25;804(2):435-9. [PubMed:15081940 ]
    11. van Lenthe H, van Kuilenburg AB, Ito T, Bootsma AH, van Cruchten A, Wada Y, van Gennip AH: Defects in pyrimidine degradation identified by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of urine specimens or urine-soaked filter paper strips. Clin Chem. 2000 Dec;46(12):1916-22. [PubMed:11106323 ]
    12. Castro-Gago M, Camina F, Lojo S, Rodriguez-Segade S, Rodriguez-Nunez A: Concentrations of purine nucleotides and purine and pyrimidine bases in cerebrospinal fluid of neurologically healthy children. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1992 Nov;30(11):761-5. [PubMed:1489848 ]
    13. Placzek M, Gaube S, Kerkmann U, Gilbertz KP, Herzinger T, Haen E, Przybilla B: Ultraviolet B-induced DNA damage in human epidermis is modified by the antioxidants ascorbic acid and D-alpha-tocopherol. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Feb;124(2):304-7. [PubMed:15675947 ]
    14. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
    15. Thienpont LM, Van Landuyt KG, Stockl D, Saeyens W, De Keukeleire D, De Leenheer AP: Evaluation of 2-iminoimidazolidin-4-one and thymine as respective internal standards for normal-phase and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of creatinine in human serum. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1995 Mar 10;665(1):63-9. [PubMed:7795802 ]
    16. Allgayer H, Kolb M, Stuber V, Kruis W: Effects of bile acids on base hydroxylation in a model of human colonic mucosal DNA. Cancer Detect Prev. 2002;26(1):85-9. [PubMed:12088208 ]
    17. Rodriguez Ortner E, Hayes RB, Weissfeld J, Gelmann EP: Effect of homeodomain protein NKX3.1 R52C polymorphism on prostate gland size. Urology. 2006 Feb;67(2):311-5. Epub 2006 Jan 25. [PubMed:16442598 ]
    18. Antille C, Tran C, Sorg O, Carraux P, Didierjean L, Saurat JH: Vitamin A exerts a photoprotective action in skin by absorbing ultraviolet B radiation. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Nov;121(5):1163-7. [PubMed:14708621 ]
    19. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
    20. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in electron carrier activity
    Specific function:
    Involved in pyrimidine base degradation. Catalyzes the reduction of uracil and thymine. Also involved the degradation of the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil.
    Gene Name:
    DPYD
    Uniprot ID:
    Q12882
    Molecular weight:
    111400.32
    Reactions
    Dihydrothymine + NADP → Thymine + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
    Specific function:
    May have a role in maintaining the integrity of the blood vessels. Has growth promoting activity on endothelial cells, angiogenic activity in vivo and chemotactic activity on endothelial cells in vitro. Catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of thymidine. The produced molecules are then utilized as carbon and energy sources or in the rescue of pyrimidine bases for nucleotide synthesis.
    Gene Name:
    TYMP
    Uniprot ID:
    P19971
    Molecular weight:
    49954.965
    Reactions
    Thymidine + Phosphate → Thymine + Deoxyribose 1-phosphatedetails