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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:44:43 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000625
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0003373
  • HMDB00625
  • HMDB03373
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGluconic acid
DescriptionGluconic acid, also known as D-gluconic acid, D-gluconate or (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid (also named dextronic acid), is the C1-oxidized form of D-glucose where the aldehyde group has become oxidized to the corresponding carboxylic acid. Gluconic acid belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar acids and derivatives. Sugar acids and derivatives are compounds containing a saccharide unit which bears a carboxylic acid group. In aqueous solution, gluconic acid exists in equilibrium with the cyclic ester glucono delta-lactone. Gluconic acid occurs naturally in fruit, honey, kombucha tea and wine. The salts of gluconic acid are known as "gluconates". Gluconic acid, gluconate salts, and gluconate esters occur widely in nature because such species arise from the oxidation of glucose. Gluconic acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to plants to humans. The metabolism of gluconate is well characterized in prokaryotes where it is known to be degraded following phosphorylation by gluconokinase. Glucokinase activity has also been detected in mammals, including humans (PMID: 24896608 ). Gluconic acid is produced in the gluconate shunt pathway. In the gluconate shunt, glucose is oxidized by glucose dehydrogenase (also called glucose oxidase) to furnish gluconate, the form in which D-gluconic acid is present at physiological pH. Subsequently, gluconate is phosphorylated by the action of gluconate kinase to produce 6-phosphogluconate, which is the second intermediate of the pentose phosphate pathway. This gluconate shunt is mainly found in plants, algae, cyanobacteria and some bacteria, which all use the Entner–Doudoroff pathway to degrade glucose or gluconate; this generates 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate-6-phosphate, which is then cleaved to generate pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Glucose dehydrogenase and gluconate kinase activities are also present in mammals, fission yeast, and flies. Gluconic acid has many industrial uses. It is used as a drug as part of electrolyte supplementation in total parenteral nutrition. It is also used in cleaning products where it helps cleaning up mineral deposits. Gluconic acid or Gluconic acid is used to maintain the cation-anion balance on electrolyte solutions. In humans, gluconic acid is involved in the metabolic disorder called the transaldolase deficiency. Gluconic acid has been found to be a metabolite in Aspergillus (Hugo Vanden Bossche, D.W.R. Mackenzie and G. Cauwenbergh. Aspergillus and Aspergillosis, 1987).
Structure
Data?1582752144
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexanoic acidChEBI
D-Gluco-hexonic acidChEBI
D-GluconsaeureChEBI
D-GlukonsaeureChEBI
Dextronic acidChEBI
Glycogenic acidChEBI
Hexonic acidChEBI
Maltonic acidChEBI
D-GluconateKegg
(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-PentahydroxyhexanoateGenerator
D-Gluco-hexonateGenerator
DextronateGenerator
GlycogenateGenerator
HexonateGenerator
MaltonateGenerator
D-Gluconic acidGenerator
GluconateGenerator
2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxy-hexanoateHMDB
2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxy-hexanoic acidHMDB
2,3,4,5,6-PentahydroxyhexanoateHMDB
2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexanoic acidHMDB
GCOHMDB
GlosantoHMDB
GlyconateHMDB
Glyconic acidHMDB
PentahydroxycaproateHMDB
Pentahydroxycaproic acidHMDB
Boron gluconateHMDB
Gluconic acid, (113)indium-labeledHMDB
Gluconic acid, calcium saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, cesium(+3) saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, lanthanum(+3) saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, sodium saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, strontium (2:1) saltHMDB
MagnerotHMDB
Manganese gluconateHMDB
Sodium gluconateHMDB
Zinc gluconateHMDB
Gluconic acid, (159)dysprosium-labeled saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, aluminum (3:1) saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, ammonium saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, magnesium (2:1) saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, (14)C-labeledHMDB
Gluconic acid, 1-(14)C-labeledHMDB
Gluconic acid, 6-(14)C-labeledHMDB
Gluconic acid, cobalt (2:1) saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, copper saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, manganese (2:1) saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, potassium saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, tin(+2) saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, zinc saltHMDB
Lithium gluconateHMDB
Magnesium gluconateHMDB
Gluconic acid, (99)technecium (5+) saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, fe(+2) salt, dihydrateHMDB
Gluconic acid, monolithium saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, monopotassium saltHMDB
Gluconic acid, monosodium saltHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O7
Average Molecular Weight196.1553
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight196.058302738
IUPAC Name(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid
Traditional Namegluconate
CAS Registry Number526-95-4
SMILES
OC[C@@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O7/c7-1-2(8)3(9)4(10)5(11)6(12)13/h2-5,7-11H,1H2,(H,12,13)/t2-,3-,4+,5-/m1/s1
InChI KeyRGHNJXZEOKUKBD-SQOUGZDYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar acids and derivatives. Sugar acids and derivatives are compounds containing a saccharide unit which bears a carboxylic acid group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentSugar acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Gluconic_acid
  • Medium-chain hydroxy acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Monosaccharide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Polyol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point113 - 118 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility316 mg/mL at 25 °CMERCK INDEX (1996)
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility159 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-3.4ChemAxon
logS-0.09ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.39ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area138.45 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity38.27 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.15 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Collision Cross Sections

NameAdductTypeData SourceValueReference
DeepCCS[M-H]-ExperimentalAstarita_neg131.730932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-ExperimentalBaker135.15630932474
DeepCCS[M+H]+ExperimentalBaker141.89230932474
AllCCS[M-H]-ExperimentalNot Available132.9http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000412
AllCCS[M+H]+ExperimentalNot Available141.892http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000412
DarkChem[M+H]+PredictedNot Available144.25431661259
DarkChem[M-H]-PredictedNot Available137.5331661259
AllCCS[M+H]+PredictedNot Available143.86932859911
AllCCS[M-H]-PredictedNot Available134.09132859911

Retention Indices

Underivatized

Not Available

Derivatized

DerivativeValueReference
Gluconic acid,1TMS,#11796.6599https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,1TMS,#21788.3965https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,1TMS,#31752.8835https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,1TMS,#41757.2677https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,1TMS,#51754.6307https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,1TMS,#61778.3014https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#11868.4076https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#21836.5844https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#31832.4916https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#41851.6511https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#51857.6763https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#61849.5695https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#71840.5764https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#81849.4078https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#91850.7557https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#101819.9187https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#111830.8099https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#121835.8865https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#131826.4819https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#141825.1493https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TMS,#151823.3158https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#11886.7275https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#21890.1084https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#31909.4395https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#41900.2803https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#51884.3506https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#61902.6725https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#71898.4072https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#81883.2155https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#91892.481https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#101883.7317https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#111884.9755https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#121903.8809https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#131895.7681https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#141891.7379https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#151897.486https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#161893.7332https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#171874.5233https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#181878.3564https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#191883.4312https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TMS,#201854.0168https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#11919.4891https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#21939.4493https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#31948.6931https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#41931.827https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#51936.2369https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#61945.335https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#71928.576https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#81936.6599https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#91943.0398https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#101926.5513https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#111919.444https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#121938.2098https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#131939.9801https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#141931.9026https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TMS,#151922.0884https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,5TMS,#11927.1543https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,5TMS,#21942.2068https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,5TMS,#31935.722https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,5TMS,#41931.0043https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,5TMS,#51910.6855https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,5TMS,#61935.921https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,6TMS,#11983.7383https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,1TBDMS,#12088.9329https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,1TBDMS,#22075.1648https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,1TBDMS,#32032.3948https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,1TBDMS,#42021.6534https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,1TBDMS,#52056.916https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,1TBDMS,#62063.8726https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#12316.1753https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#22288.497https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#32282.6145https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#42329.772https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#52319.346https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#62311.1724https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#72291.0847https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#82325.5234https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#92319.862https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#102267.5598https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#112303.518https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#122304.3699https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#132284.7https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#142293.4507https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,2TBDMS,#152298.1772https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#12520.2078https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#22532.8328https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#32577.9595https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#42559.7812https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#52521.443https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#62586.8408https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#72568.5745https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#82562.101https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#92563.418https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#102551.5273https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#112532.0923https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#122578.2761https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#132575.2588https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#142565.9656https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#152577.8345https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#162570.6123https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#172534.1228https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#182550.2126https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#192555.8982https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,3TBDMS,#202526.3079https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#12766.5496https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#22821.5789https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#32802.5627https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#42810.2388https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#52802.1257https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#62793.9048https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#72803.1726https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#82798.213https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#92792.2253https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#102773.7283https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#112798.6758https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#122799.5425https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#132790.875https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#142786.922https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,4TBDMS,#152762.0205https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,5TBDMS,#13009.3574https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,5TBDMS,#23005.2454https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,5TBDMS,#32991.4736https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,5TBDMS,#42988.2048https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,5TBDMS,#52988.2761https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,5TBDMS,#62997.1082https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Gluconic acid,6TBDMS,#13213.8252Lange, M. and Fedorova, M. (2020) Evaluation of lipid quantification accuracy using HILIC and RPLC MS on the example of NIST SRM 1950 metabolites in human plasma. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 412(15), 3573-3584.
Spectra

GC-MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0932000000-202af87cea2d1f7184ab2014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-005a-0920000000-2308d9356bc5bb01420e2014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-014j-0950000000-61ab7adf15e353df4ba22014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (6 TMS)splash10-0le9-1964000000-5eb7d6777170e1ad5fa02014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0932000000-202af87cea2d1f7184ab2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0le9-1964000000-5eb7d6777170e1ad5fa02017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0931000000-b07fcc4ac1e6701d32c82017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0930000000-181f7b697b591cf8080b2017-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-06tu-9500000000-ebe398c88f74bb51e7022016-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (6 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03fr-6121297000-698854fa2453487a1d692017-10-06View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-06tu-9500000000-abc0b019db16afd3352b2021-09-05View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-8900000000-5b42adf83e422cffefb62021-09-18View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9800000000-24fa3ff739ff064312ab2021-09-18View Spectrum

LC-MS/MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-06vj-1900000000-78e4a5d92be678c068e42012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03ds-5900000000-f5d8284baa473ce9d77f2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-9500000000-7c5b20eef98d0e3d6cbb2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-b2632ca9154cc5e444382012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-002b-5900000000-4a3066f9dfd6653682fb2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-50f63dfd017a8380a47c2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-056r-9000000000-91ccf7c8949c1c9d852a2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-6e40f1cebd8b460016b32012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-b2632ca9154cc5e444382017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-002b-5900000000-cf9b480ac397acfebc712017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-eca61f6a9c0f1d06e84d2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-056r-9000000000-91ccf7c8949c1c9d852a2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-6e40f1cebd8b460016b32017-09-14View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004j-2900000000-42150530e3232b66059b2016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9500000000-763d7b03787732284c192016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0bvi-9100000000-040569af699927ca68592016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-05ic-9800000000-3571d4f2ff79bc0d7fa02016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-052r-9400000000-3cb207fadbe1fcae5cb72016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9100000000-8c900935a94065d0938b2016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-9100000000-ff1473e44b436e4f8fa52021-09-06View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-aac8778b161b37e56a132021-09-06View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-8920759ff7b62f3080182021-09-06View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-024m-8900000000-7ecf18d54cb462c045582021-09-07View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-074i-9000000000-a24dd2cb9b57deddeaae2021-09-07View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-08fr-9000000000-ae48df53c8de11d2cae62021-09-07View Spectrum

NMR

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, D2O, experimental)2016-10-22View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, D2O, experimental)2016-10-22View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 1H] 2D NMR Spectrum (predicted)2012-12-04View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, predicted)2012-12-05View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified<5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.295 +/- 0.534 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified45.49 +/- 24.12 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.3 (8.2-26.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified35.0+/-29.0 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified21.5 (8.1-38.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified63.463 +/- 28.036 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified3.732 +/- 0.687 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Cryptosporidium infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified65.277 +/- 47.794 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Schizophrenia
  1. Koike S, Bundo M, Iwamoto K, Suga M, Kuwabara H, Ohashi Y, Shinoda K, Takano Y, Iwashiro N, Satomura Y, Nagai T, Natsubori T, Tada M, Yamasue H, Kasai K: A snapshot of plasma metabolites in first-episode schizophrenia: a capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry study. Transl Psychiatry. 2014 Apr 8;4:e379. doi: 10.1038/tp.2014.19. [PubMed:24713860 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB13180
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB001980
KNApSAcK IDC00007303
Chemspider ID10240
KEGG Compound IDC00257
BioCyc IDGLUCONATE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGluconic_acid
METLIN ID345
PubChem Compound10690
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID33198
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDGLCN
MarkerDB IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceAnastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G. Gluconic acid production. Recent Patents on Biotechnology (2007), 1(2), 167-180.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Harkness RA, Purkiss P, Duffy S, Chalmers RA, Jones M: The effects of fetal energy depletion on amniotic fluid concentrations of amino acids, organic acids and related metabolites. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1988;11(1):103-13. [PubMed:3128683 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  3. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]
  4. Rohatgi N, Nielsen TK, Bjorn SP, Axelsson I, Paglia G, Voldborg BG, Palsson BO, Rolfsson O: Biochemical characterization of human gluconokinase and the proposed metabolic impact of gluconic acid as determined by constraint based metabolic network analysis. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 4;9(6):e98760. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098760. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:24896608 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Gluconolactonase with low activity towards other sugar lactones, including gulonolactone and galactonolactone. Can also hydrolyze diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate and phenylacetate (in vitro). Calcium-binding protein. Modulates Ca(2+) signaling, and Ca(2+)-dependent cellular processes and enzyme activities (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RGN
Uniprot ID:
Q15493
Molecular weight:
33252.53
Reactions
Gluconolactone + Water → Gluconic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in shikimate kinase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IDNK
Uniprot ID:
Q5T6J7
Molecular weight:
20577.63
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Gluconic acid → ADP + 6-Phosphogluconic aciddetails