You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-10-09 21:00:15 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00699
Metabolite Identification
Common Name1-Methylnicotinamide
Description1-Methylnicotinamide, also known as trigonellinamide or trigonellamide chloride, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as nicotinamides. These are heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing a pyridine ring substituted at position 3 by a carboxamide group. 1-Methylnicotinamide is a drug. 1-Methylnicotinamide is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). 1-Methylnicotinamide exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Within humans, 1-methylnicotinamide participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, S-adenosylhomocysteine and 1-methylnicotinamide can be biosynthesized from S-adenosylmethionine and niacinamide; which is catalyzed by the enzyme nicotinamide N-methyltransferase. In addition, 1-methylnicotinamide can be converted into N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide through the action of the enzyme aldehyde oxidase. In humans, 1-methylnicotinamide is involved in nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism.
1-Methylnicotinamide cationChEBI
1-Methyl-3-carbamoylpyridinium cationHMDB
3-Amido-N-methylpyridinium: 1-methyl-3-pyridinecarboxamideHMDB
I-methyl nicotinamideHMDB
N-Methyl-3-carbamoylpyridinium ionHMDB
N(1)-Methylnicotinamide chlorideHMDB
N(1)-Methylnicotinamide cyanideHMDB
N(1)-Methylnicotinamide fluorideHMDB
N(1)-Methylnicotinamide iodide, 3-(aminocarbonyl-13C)-labeledHMDB
N(1)-Methylnicotinamide methylsulfateHMDB
N(1)-Methylnicotinamide perchlorateHMDB
N(1)-Methylnicotinamide bromideHMDB
N(1)-Methylnicotinamide iodideHMDB
N(1)-Methylnicotinamide tetrafluoroborate (1-)HMDB
Trigonellamide chlorideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H9N2O
Average Molecular Weight137.1592
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight137.07148792
IUPAC Name3-carbamoyl-1-methylpyridin-1-ium
Traditional Name1-methylnicotinamide
CAS Registry Number3106-60-3
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as nicotinamides. These are heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing a pyridine ring substituted at position 3 by a carboxamide group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPyridines and derivatives
Sub ClassPyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentNicotinamides
Alternative Parents
  • Nicotinamide
  • N-methylpyridinium
  • Pyridinium
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Health effect:



Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility855 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.72 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.24ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.97 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity39.13 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability14.25 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000i-5900000000-5a5fd45836c387d92371Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0900000000-c99e0e70357eb6fa74bbSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-93675f2b9efbaba4d471Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0fvl-9000000000-b1e908db583e418c2545Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-9c3104d60f21f6375b0cSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-e500f262d42edb9b3ad7Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9200000000-496b2cf62a07bea4f746Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-002f-9000000000-a17b3a63979577f6fa9eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-00ou-9000000000-46a856cd097a7a14dc90Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-000l-6900000000-360fb882a925f7e9edc9Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-babd4e89db309a5c74cfSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-9c3104d60f21f6375b0cSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-e500f262d42edb9b3ad7Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0006-9200000000-052c844f974abba065ebSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-002f-9000000000-a17b3a63979577f6fa9eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-00ou-9000000000-2fe6c195129f32a62a3cSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-000l-6900000000-360fb882a925f7e9edc9Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-babd4e89db309a5c74cfSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-08a578fa81c8d41a4fe6Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-d889aade6d1014ffb393Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004r-1900000000-8052aba6067c868e594fSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-9500000000-579bc8310420ec3d8786Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-141e3a418b748abf9e1dSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-1900000000-33499eeb5abff5a8b53bSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-e45f804a013c97310f00Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Placenta
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.430 (0.007-0.850) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.749 +/- 7.16 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.82 (0.26-2.3) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
UrineDetected and Quantified1.9 (0.67-5.1) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
UrineDetected and Quantified3.5 (1.3-6.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
UrineDetected and Quantified4.8 (1.86-13.94) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
UrineDetected and Quantified6.105 (0.240-12.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.5 (2.1-2.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.8 (1.2-15.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.099-0.851 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCirrhosis details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.426 +/- 3.509 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
UrineDetected and Quantified3.0 (0.0-14.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothLung cancer details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) details
UrineDetected and Quantified37.00 (11.5-62.7) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPellagra details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
  1. Somogyi A, Siebert D, Bochner F: Determination of endogenous concentrations of N1-methylnicotinamide in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Biochem. 1990 May 15;187(1):160-5. [PubMed:2142586 ]
Lung Cancer
  1. Stretch C, Eastman T, Mandal R, Eisner R, Wishart DS, Mourtzakis M, Prado CM, Damaraju S, Ball RO, Greiner R, Baracos VE: Prediction of skeletal muscle and fat mass in patients with advanced cancer using a metabolomic approach. J Nutr. 2012 Jan;142(1):14-21. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.147751. Epub 2011 Dec 7. [PubMed:22157537 ]
  1. Creeke PI, Dibari F, Cheung E, van den Briel T, Kyroussis E, Seal AJ: Whole blood NAD and NADP concentrations are not depressed in subjects with clinical pellagra. J Nutr. 2007 Sep;137(9):2013-7. [PubMed:17709435 ]
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
  1. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Zeltner R, Schulze BD, Reinhold SW, Deutschmann M, Immervoll AK, Boger CA, Banas B, Eckardt KU, Oefner PJ: Detection of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease by NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of urine. Kidney Int. 2011 Jun;79(11):1244-53. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.30. Epub 2011 Mar 9. [PubMed:21389975 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 211980 (Lung Cancer)
  • 601313 (Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease)
  • 610247 (Eosinophilic esophagitis)
DrugBank IDDB11710
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022188
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID444
KEGG Compound IDC02918
BioCyc IDCPD-396
BiGG ID2226225
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
PubChem Compound457
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16797
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDMDB00000225
Synthesis ReferenceNelis, Hans J. C. F.; Airy, Subhash C.; Sinsheimer, J. E. Comparison of the alkylation of nicotinamide and 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine for the determination of aliphatic epoxides. Analytical Chemistry (1982), 54(2), 213-16.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Pelletier O, Brassard R: Automated and manual determination of N1-methylnicotinamide in urine. Am J Clin Nutr. 1977 Dec;30(12):2108-16. [PubMed:145178 ]
  2. Carter EG: Quantitation of urinary niacin metabolites by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982 Nov;36(5):926-30. [PubMed:6215856 ]
  3. Slominska EM, Smolenski RT, Szolkiewicz M, Leaver N, Rutkowski B, Simmonds HA, Swierczynski J: Accumulation of plasma N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide in patients with chronic renal failure. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002 Feb;231(1-2):83-8. [PubMed:11952169 ]
  4. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. [PubMed:12829005 ]
  5. Patterson JI, Brown RR, Linkswiler H, Harper AE: Excretion of tryptophan-niacin metabolites by young men: effects of tryptophan, leucine, and vitamin B6 intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Oct;33(10):2157-67. [PubMed:6448542 ]
  6. Musfeld C, Biollaz J, Belaz N, Kesselring UW, Decosterd LA: Validation of an HPLC method for the determination of urinary and plasma levels of N1-methylnicotinamide, an endogenous marker of renal cationic transport and plasma flow. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2001 Jan;24(3):391-404. [PubMed:11199218 ]
  7. Wozniacka A, Wieczorkowska M, Gebicki J, Sysa-Jedrzejowska A: Topical application of 1-methylnicotinamide in the treatment of rosacea: a pilot study. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2005 Nov;30(6):632-5. [PubMed:16197374 ]
  8. Chlopicki S, Swies J, Mogielnicki A, Buczko W, Bartus M, Lomnicka M, Adamus J, Gebicki J: 1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA), a primary metabolite of nicotinamide, exerts anti-thrombotic activity mediated by a cyclooxygenase-2/prostacyclin pathway. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;152(2):230-9. Epub 2007 Jul 16. [PubMed:17641676 ]
  9. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]


General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
1-Methylnicotinamide + Oxygen + Water → N1-Methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Iondetails
1-Methylnicotinamide + Oxygen + Water → N1-Methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the N-methylation of nicotinamide and other pyridines to form pyridinium ions. This activity is important for biotransformation of many drugs and xenobiotic compounds.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
S-Adenosylmethionine + Niacinamide → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 1-Methylnicotinamidedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Niacinamide + Hydrogen Ion → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 1-Methylnicotinamidedetails