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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-10-13 04:30:30 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000720
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00720
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLevulinic acid
DescriptionLevulinic acid, also known as laevulinsaeure or levulate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gamma-keto acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing an aldehyde substituted with a keto group on the C4 carbon atom. Levulinic acid exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Levulinic acid is a sweet, acetoin, and acidic tasting compound. Levulinic acid has been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as fruits, green vegetables, chickens (Gallus gallus), root vegetables, and breakfast cereal. This could make levulinic acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Levulinic acid is a secondary metabolite. Secondary metabolites are metabolically or physiologically non-essential metabolites that may serve a role as defense or signalling molecules. In some cases they are simply molecules that arise from the incomplete metabolism of other secondary metabolites. Based on a literature review a significant number of articles have been published on Levulinic acid.
Structure
Data?1582752152
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-Acetylpropionic acidChEBI
3-Ketobutane-1-carboxylic acidChEBI
4-Ketovaleric acidChEBI
4-Oxovaleric acidChEBI
beta-Acetylpropionic acidChEBI
gamma-Ketovaleric acidChEBI
LAEVULINIC ACIDChEBI
LaevulinsaeureChEBI
LEVAChEBI
Levulic acidChEBI
LevulinsaeureChEBI
3-AcetylpropionateGenerator
3-Ketobutane-1-carboxylateGenerator
4-KetovalerateGenerator
4-OxovalerateGenerator
b-AcetylpropionateGenerator
b-Acetylpropionic acidGenerator
beta-AcetylpropionateGenerator
Β-acetylpropionateGenerator
Β-acetylpropionic acidGenerator
g-KetovalerateGenerator
g-Ketovaleric acidGenerator
gamma-KetovalerateGenerator
Γ-ketovalerateGenerator
Γ-ketovaleric acidGenerator
LAEVULINateGenerator
LevulateGenerator
LevulinateGenerator
4-OxopentanoateHMDB
4-Oxopentanoic acidHMDB
DiasporalHMDB
Levulinic acid, sodium saltHMDB
Magnesium diasporalHMDB
Calcium levulateHMDB
Magnesium levulinateHMDB
Calcium levulinateHMDB
Levulinic acid, ammonium saltHMDB
Levulinic acid, calcium saltHMDB
Magnesium laevulinateHMDB
Levulinic acidChEBI
Chemical FormulaC5H8O3
Average Molecular Weight116.1152
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight116.047344122
IUPAC Name4-oxopentanoic acid
Traditional Namelevulinic acid
CAS Registry Number123-76-2
SMILES
CC(=O)CCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H8O3/c1-4(6)2-3-5(7)8/h2-3H2,1H3,(H,7,8)
InChI KeyJOOXCMJARBKPKM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gamma-keto acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing an aldehyde substituted with a keto group on the C4 carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassKeto acids and derivatives
Sub ClassGamma-keto acids and derivatives
Direct ParentGamma-keto acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Gamma-keto acid
  • Short-chain keto acid
  • Ketone
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect

Disposition

Biological location

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point30 - 33 °CNot Available
Boiling Point245.00 to 246.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility674600 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
LogP-0.49HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility139 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.14ALOGPS
logP-0.069ChemAxon
logS0.08ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.32ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.37 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity27.09 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.23 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+125.0831661259
DarkChem[M-H]-119.52631661259
AllCCS[M+H]+127.32432859911
AllCCS[M-H]-125.21632859911
DeepCCS[M+H]+123.42630932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-120.65230932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-157.01730932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+131.9530932474

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Levulinic acidCC(=O)CCC(O)=O2266.2Standard polar33892256
Levulinic acidCC(=O)CCC(O)=O978.2Standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acidCC(=O)CCC(O)=O1068.6Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Levulinic acid,1TMS,isomer #1CC(=O)CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C1136.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,1TMS,isomer #2CC(=CCC(=O)O)O[Si](C)(C)C1251.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,1TMS,isomer #3C=C(CCC(=O)O)O[Si](C)(C)C1241.3Semi standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,2TMS,isomer #1CC(=CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1344.8Semi standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,2TMS,isomer #1CC(=CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1277.7Standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,2TMS,isomer #1CC(=CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1343.5Standard polar33892256
Levulinic acid,2TMS,isomer #2C=C(CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1295.3Semi standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,2TMS,isomer #2C=C(CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1301.9Standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,2TMS,isomer #2C=C(CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1371.2Standard polar33892256
Levulinic acid,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(=O)CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1369.4Semi standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC(=CCC(=O)O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1492.1Semi standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,1TBDMS,isomer #3C=C(CCC(=O)O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1465.3Semi standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(=CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1774.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(=CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1730.8Standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(=CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1657.1Standard polar33892256
Levulinic acid,2TBDMS,isomer #2C=C(CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1718.9Semi standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,2TBDMS,isomer #2C=C(CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1728.2Standard non polar33892256
Levulinic acid,2TBDMS,isomer #2C=C(CCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1679.9Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-0ug0-6900000000-1e5d9b8d9a359287a6b02014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-0ug0-6900000000-ffad5af79457e68cca022014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-dd0d17209893b2b71d102017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-0b0447e3daa65b1cd9322017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-e0d39a4a978220036faa2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ug0-6900000000-1e5d9b8d9a359287a6b02017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ug0-6900000000-ffad5af79457e68cca022017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-beecc1bba7b8b0ca42012017-08-28Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00fr-9500000000-8c1e2090296fa71bf0d02017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid GC-MS (TMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid GC-MS (TBDMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid GC-MS (TBDMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid GC-MS (TBDMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-00xr-9400000000-923a1fccce36ba18d0882012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-01vo-9300000000-2c09d37e792efac906552012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-0303-9800000000-d158f0c32e82eca0ef902012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-dd0d17209893b2b71d102012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-006x-9000000000-adbd744553b432e3c7002021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014i-9000000000-469fd98086c8d9ad18302021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-9200000000-e73b5a48710de1cc7a5d2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00kb-9400000000-1043277f0ad49a5664a32017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-006t-9100000000-0a0fca12836c8c8ba1132017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0zfr-9000000000-247961be84518f0ebcda2017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014i-3900000000-b8133a0e2c97f98cef462017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-01b9-9600000000-e133b145c780f2c290d32017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-052e-9000000000-6ff5c46cdc591b7256942017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00xs-9300000000-eb059cdb2e36fd93dd562021-09-21Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0007-9000000000-1e533a2764dd57c913022021-09-21Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-c7b0e35a1f31ca5d78532021-09-21Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00ea-9000000000-8e96196fb7b3bcd96a402021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-a8096e58fd006cbfe2112021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Levulinic acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-83517d34c408e5f9d0482021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Neuron
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot Available
Normal
      Not Available
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.691 +/- 5.255 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.87 (0.31-1.92) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.3 (0.4-2.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.28 (0.33-2.75) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.7 (0.6-2.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleAttachment loss  details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleMissing teeth details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MalePeriodontal Probing Depth details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.873 +/- 7.994 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified414.784 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Attachment loss
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Missing teeth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Periodontal Probing Depth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. Slae, M., Huynh, H., Wishart, D.S. (2014). Analysis of 30 normal pediatric urine samples via NMR spectroscopy (unpublished work). NA.
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB02239
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB003296
KNApSAcK IDC00051252
Chemspider ID11091
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkLevulinic_acid
METLIN ID2195
PubChem Compound11579
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID45630
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDrw1016791
References
Synthesis ReferenceCai, Lei; Lu, Xiuyang; He, Long; Xia, Wenli; Ren, Qilong. Review on preparation methods of levulinic acid, a new platform chemical. Xiandai Huagong (2003), 23(4), 14-16.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Lee SH, Kim SO, Chung BC: Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of urinary oxoacids using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)oxime-trimethylsilyl ester derivatization and cation-exchange chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998 Nov 20;719(1-2):1-7. [PubMed:9869358 ]
  2. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. [PubMed:12829005 ]
  3. Lopez Montes A, Lorenzo I, Perez Martinez J: [Porphyria and inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome]. Nefrologia. 2004;24 Suppl 3:85-8. [PubMed:15219077 ]
  4. Melgaard B, Clausen J, Rastogi SC: Heavy metal levels and delta-amino-levulinic acid dehydrase levels in peripheral polyneuropathy. Acta Neurol Scand. 1976 Apr;53(4):291-307. [PubMed:178141 ]
  5. Matsui M, Kaji R, Oka N, Nishio T, Kimura J: [Multifocal axonal motor neuropathy associated with anti-ganglioside antibodies]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1992 Oct;32(10):1130-5. [PubMed:1297559 ]
  6. Keithly L, Ferris Wayne G, Cullen DM, Connolly GN: Industry research on the use and effects of levulinic acid: a case study in cigarette additives. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005 Oct;7(5):761-71. [PubMed:16191747 ]
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