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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2022-10-24 19:44:10 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000736
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0002083
  • HMDB0062556
  • HMDB0062606
  • HMDB00736
  • HMDB02083
  • HMDB62556
  • HMDB62606
Metabolite Identification
Common NameIsobutyryl-L-carnitine
DescriptionIsobutyryl-L-carnitine is an acylcarnitine. More specifically, it is an isobutyric acid ester of carnitine. Acylcarnitines were first discovered more than 70 year ago (PMID: 13825279 ). It is believed that there are more than 1000 types of acylcarnitines in the human body. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups (organic acids and fatty acids) from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy.  This process is known as beta-oxidation. According to a recent review (PMID: 35710135 ), acylcarnitines (ACs) can be classified into 9 different categories depending on the type and size of their acyl-group: 1) short-chain ACs; 2) medium-chain ACs; 3) long-chain ACs; 4) very long-chain ACs; 5) hydroxy ACs; 6) branched chain ACs; 7) unsaturated ACs; 8) dicarboxylic ACs and 9) miscellaneous ACs. Short-chain ACs have acyl-groups with two to five carbons (C2-C5), medium-chain ACs have acyl-groups with six to thirteen carbons (C6-C13), long-chain ACs have acyl-groups with fourteen to twenty once carbons (C14-C21) and very long-chain ACs have acyl groups with more than 22 carbons. Isobutyryl-L-carnitine is therefore classified as a short chain AC. As a short-chain acylcarnitine isobutyryl-L-carnitine is a member of the most abundant group of carnitines in the body, comprising more than 50% of all acylcarnitines quantified in tissues and biofluids (PMID: 31920980 ). Some short-chain carnitines have been studied as supplements or treatments for a number of diseases, including neurological disorders and inborn errors of metabolism. In particular isobutyryl-L-carnitine is elevated in the blood or plasma of individuals with isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (PMID: 20591710 ), glutaric aciduria type 2 (PMID: 20591710 ), ethylmalonic encephalopathy (PMID: 20591710 ), and gestational diabetes mellitus (PMID: 29626588 ). It is also decreased in the blood or plasma of individuals with traumatic brain injury (PMID: 23560894 ). Isobutyryl-L-carnitine is elevated in the urine of individuals with glutaric aciduria type 2 (PMID: 2288224 ), multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (PMID: 3383426 ), and acute coronary syndrome (PMID: 30316136 ). Carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT, EC:2.3.1.7) is responsible for the synthesis of all short-chain and short branched-chain acylcarnitines (PMID: 23485643 ). The study of acylcarnitines is an active area of research and it is likely that many novel acylcarnitines will be discovered in the coming years. It is also likely that many novel roles in health and disease will be uncovered. An excellent review of the current state of knowledge for acylcarnitines is available (PMID: 35710135 ).
Structure
Data?1614284129
Synonyms
ValueSource
(R)-IsobutyrylcarnitineChEBI
Iso-butyryl-L(-)-carnitinChEBI
Isobutyryl-carnitineChEBI
Isobutyryl-L-(-)-carnitineChEBI
O-Isobutanoyl-(R)-carnitineChEBI
Isobutyryl-1-carnitineHMDB
IsobutyrylcarnitineHMDB
O-Isobutyryl-L-carnitineHMDB
Isobutyryl-L-carnitineHMDB, ChEBI
Chemical FormulaC11H22NO4
Average Molecular Weight232.299
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight232.154334613
IUPAC Name(3R)-3-[(2-methylpropanoyl)oxy]-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoate
Traditional Name(3R)-3-[(2-methylpropanoyl)oxy]-4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate
CAS Registry Number25518-49-4
SMILES
CC(C)C(=O)O[C@H](CC(O)=O)C[N+](C)(C)C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C11H21NO4/c1-8(2)11(15)16-9(6-10(13)14)7-12(3,4)5/h8-9H,6-7H2,1-5H3/p+1/t9-/m1/s1
InChI KeyLRCNOZRCYBNMEP-SECBINFHSA-O
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl carnitines. These are organic compounds containing a fatty acid with the carboxylic acid attached to carnitine through an ester bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acid esters
Direct ParentAcyl carnitines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Acyl-carnitine
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic salt
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect
Disposition
Biological locationRoute of exposureSource
Process
Role
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.058 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.1ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-3.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.27ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.43 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity81.84 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability24.64 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DeepCCS[M+H]+153.64830932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-151.28930932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-184.17330932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+159.74130932474
AllCCS[M+H]+153.732859911
AllCCS[M+H-H2O]+150.632859911
AllCCS[M+NH4]+156.532859911
AllCCS[M+Na]+157.332859911
AllCCS[M-H]-161.732859911
AllCCS[M+Na-2H]-162.932859911
AllCCS[M+HCOO]-164.332859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Isobutyryl-L-carnitineCC(C)C(=O)O[C@H](CC(O)=O)C[N+](C)(C)C2355.0Standard polar33892256
Isobutyryl-L-carnitineCC(C)C(=O)O[C@H](CC(O)=O)C[N+](C)(C)C1387.9Standard non polar33892256
Isobutyryl-L-carnitineCC(C)C(=O)O[C@H](CC(O)=O)C[N+](C)(C)C1558.5Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Isobutyryl-L-carnitine,1TMS,isomer #1CC(C)C(=O)O[C@H](CC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)C[N+](C)(C)C1548.9Semi standard non polar33892256
Isobutyryl-L-carnitine,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)C(=O)O[C@H](CC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C[N+](C)(C)C1775.5Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Isobutyryl-L-carnitine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Isobutyryl-L-carnitine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Isobutyryl-L-carnitine GC-MS (TMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Isobutyryl-L-carnitine GC-MS (TBDMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isobutyryl-L-carnitine Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-001i-5290000000-baab610a0cdc91406add2018-05-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isobutyryl-L-carnitine Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-8d180efb75e39baa17aa2018-05-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isobutyryl-L-carnitine Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-6311075865704b40d2942018-05-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isobutyryl-L-carnitine 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-0090000000-cf95ec9e05e8b6c1a98f2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isobutyryl-L-carnitine 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0019-9050000000-ebf3a8e1eb1d0ceaaeba2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isobutyryl-L-carnitine 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-e9262cbaff8cb4ad0ba62021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2018-05-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Placenta
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.069 (0.015-0.203) uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.069 (0.015-0.203) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.05-0.33 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.11 +/- 0.06 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.13 +/- 0.07 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.034 (0.009-0.084) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothVery long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (vLCAD) details
UrineDetected and Quantified0 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCAD)
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  1. Costa CG, Struys EA, Bootsma A, ten Brink HJ, Dorland L, Tavares de Almeida I, Duran M, Jakobs C: Quantitative analysis of plasma acylcarnitines using gas chromatography chemical ionization mass fragmentography. J Lipid Res. 1997 Jan;38(1):173-82. [PubMed:9034211 ]
Short Chain Acyl-Coa Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  1. Bhala A, Willi SM, Rinaldo P, Bennett MJ, Schmidt-Sommerfeld E, Hale DE: Clinical and biochemical characterization of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. J Pediatr. 1995 Jun;126(6):910-5. [PubMed:7776094 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 201475 (Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency)
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022213
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID147286
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID5704
PubChem Compound168379
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID84838
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDMDB00000241
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceStrack, Erich; Mueller, Detlef M. Preparation of O-acylcarnitines. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fuer Physiologische Chemie (1970), 351(1), 95-8.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Sass JO, Sander S, Zschocke J: Isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: isobutyrylglycinuria and ACAD8 gene mutations in two infants. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2004;27(6):741-5. [PubMed:15505379 ]
  2. Kidouchi K, Niwa T, Nohara D, Asai K, Sugiyama N, Morishita H, Kobayashi M, Wada Y: Urinary acylcarnitines in a patient with neonatal multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency, quantified by a carboxylic acid analyzer with a reversed-phase column. Clin Chim Acta. 1988 Apr 29;173(3):263-72. [PubMed:3383426 ]
  3. Minkler PE, Ingalls ST, Hoppel CL: High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of acylcarnitines following derivatization with 4'-bromophenacyl trifluoromethanesulfonate. Anal Biochem. 1990 Feb 15;185(1):29-35. [PubMed:2344045 ]
  4. Roe CR, Cederbaum SD, Roe DS, Mardach R, Galindo A, Sweetman L: Isolated isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: an unrecognized defect in human valine metabolism. Mol Genet Metab. 1998 Dec;65(4):264-71. [PubMed:9889013 ]
  5. Sakuma T, Sugiyama N, Ichiki T, Kobayashi M, Wada Y, Nohara D: Analysis of acylcarnitines in maternal urine for prenatal diagnosis of glutaric aciduria type 2. Prenat Diagn. 1991 Feb;11(2):77-82. [PubMed:2062823 ]
  6. Vallee L, Fontaine M, Nuyts JP, Ricart G, Krivosic I, Divry P, Vianey-Saban C, Lhermitte M, Vamecq J: Stroke, hemiparesis and deficient mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Eur J Pediatr. 1994 Aug;153(8):598-603. [PubMed:7957409 ]
  7. Sugiyama N, Kidouchi K, Kobayashi M, Wada Y: Carnitine deficiency in inherited organic acid disorders and Reye syndrome. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1990 Aug;32(4):410-6. [PubMed:2288224 ]
  8. Koeberl DD, Young SP, Gregersen NS, Vockley J, Smith WE, Benjamin DK Jr, An Y, Weavil SD, Chaing SH, Bali D, McDonald MT, Kishnani PS, Chen YT, Millington DS: Rare disorders of metabolism with elevated butyryl- and isobutyryl-carnitine detected by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening. Pediatr Res. 2003 Aug;54(2):219-23. Epub 2003 May 7. [PubMed:12736383 ]
  9. Fontaine M, Briand G, Largilliere C, Degand P, Divry P, Vianey-Saban C, Mousson B, Vamecq J: Metabolic studies in a patient with severe carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II deficiency. Clin Chim Acta. 1998 May 25;273(2):161-70. [PubMed:9657346 ]
  10. Matsumoto K, Takahashi M, Takiyama N, Misaki H, Matsuo N, Murano S, Yuki H: Enzyme reactor for urinary acylcarnitines assay by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Clin Chim Acta. 1993 Jul 16;216(1-2):135-43. [PubMed:8222264 ]
  11. Shalev DP, Soffer Y, Lewin LM: Investigations on the motility of human spermatozoa in a defined medium in the presence of metabolic inhibitors and of carnitine. Andrologia. 1986 Jul-Aug;18(4):368-75. [PubMed:3752540 ]
  12. Fontaine M, Briand G, Ser N, Armelin I, Rolland MO, Degand P, Vamecq J: Metabolic studies in twin brothers with 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency. Clin Chim Acta. 1996 Nov 15;255(1):67-83. [PubMed:8930414 ]
  13. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  14. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  15. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  16. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  17. Violante S, Ijlst L, Ruiter J, Koster J, van Lenthe H, Duran M, de Almeida IT, Wanders RJ, Houten SM, Ventura FV: Substrate specificity of human carnitine acetyltransferase: Implications for fatty acid and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Jun;1832(6):773-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.02.012. Epub 2013 Feb 24. [PubMed:23485643 ]
  18. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]
  19. FRITZ IB: Action of carnitine on long chain fatty acid oxidation by liver. Am J Physiol. 1959 Aug;197:297-304. doi: 10.1152/ajplegacy.1959.197.2.297. [PubMed:13825279 ]
  20. Makarova E, Makrecka-Kuka M, Vilks K, Volska K, Sevostjanovs E, Grinberga S, Zarkova-Malkova O, Dambrova M, Liepinsh E: Decreases in Circulating Concentrations of Long-Chain Acylcarnitines and Free Fatty Acids During the Glucose Tolerance Test Represent Tissue-Specific Insulin Sensitivity. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Dec 17;10:870. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00870. eCollection 2019. [PubMed:31920980 ]
  21. Forni S, Fu X, Palmer SE, Sweetman L: Rapid determination of C4-acylcarnitine and C5-acylcarnitine isomers in plasma and dried blood spots by UPLC-MS/MS as a second tier test following flow-injection MS/MS acylcarnitine profile analysis. Mol Genet Metab. 2010 Sep;101(1):25-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2010.05.012. Epub 2010 Jun 10. [PubMed:20591710 ]
  22. Roy C, Tremblay PY, Anassour-Laouan-Sidi E, Lucas M, Forest JC, Giguere Y, Ayotte P: Risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to plasma concentrations of amino acids and acylcarnitines: A nested case-control study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2018 Jun;140:183-190. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2018.03.058. Epub 2018 Apr 4. [PubMed:29626588 ]
  23. Jeter CB, Hergenroeder GW, Ward NH 3rd, Moore AN, Dash PK: Human mild traumatic brain injury decreases circulating branched-chain amino acids and their metabolite levels. J Neurotrauma. 2013 Apr 15;30(8):671-9. doi: 10.1089/neu.2012.2491. Epub 2013 Apr 6. [PubMed:23560894 ]
  24. Wang Y, Sun W, Zheng J, Xu C, Wang X, Li T, Tang Y, Li Z: Urinary metabonomic study of patients with acute coronary syndrome using UPLC-QTOF/MS. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2018 Nov 15;1100-1101:122-130. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2018.10.005. Epub 2018 Oct 7. [PubMed:30316136 ]
  25. Dambrova M, Makrecka-Kuka M, Kuka J, Vilskersts R, Nordberg D, Attwood MM, Smesny S, Sen ZD, Guo AC, Oler E, Tian S, Zheng J, Wishart DS, Liepinsh E, Schioth HB: Acylcarnitines: Nomenclature, Biomarkers, Therapeutic Potential, Drug Targets, and Clinical Trials. Pharmacol Rev. 2022 Jul;74(3):506-551. doi: 10.1124/pharmrev.121.000408. [PubMed:35710135 ]
  26. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.