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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:22:48 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000965
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00965
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHypotaurine
DescriptionHypotaurine belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sulfinic acids. Sulfinic acids are compounds containing a sulfinic acid functional group, with the general structure RS(=O)OH (R = organyl, not H). Hypotaurine is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). Hypotaurine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Within humans, hypotaurine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, hypotaurine can be biosynthesized from cysteamine; which is catalyzed by the enzyme 2-aminoethanethiol dioxygenase. In addition, hypotaurine can be biosynthesized from 3-sulfinoalanine through its interaction with the enzyme cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase. In humans, hypotaurine is involved in taurine and hypotaurine metabolism.
Structure
Data?1582752168
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-Aminoethanesulfinic acidChEBI
2-AminoethanesulfinateGenerator
2-AminoethanesulphinateGenerator
2-Aminoethanesulphinic acidGenerator
2-Amino-ethanesulfinateHMDB
2-Amino-ethanesulfinic acidHMDB
2-AminoethylsulfinateHMDB
2-Aminoethylsulfinic acidHMDB
CystaminesulfinateHMDB
Cystaminesulfinic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC2H7NO2S
Average Molecular Weight109.147
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight109.019749163
IUPAC Name2-aminoethane-1-sulfinic acid
Traditional Namehypotaurine
CAS Registry Number300-84-5
SMILES
NCCS(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H7NO2S/c3-1-2-6(4)5/h1-3H2,(H,4,5)
InChI KeyVVIUBCNYACGLLV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sulfinic acids. Sulfinic acids are compounds containing a sulfinic acid functional group, with the general structure RS(=O)OH (R = organyl, not H).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassSulfinic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassSulfinic acids
Direct ParentSulfinic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Sulfinic acid
  • Alkanesulfinic acid
  • Alkanesulfinic acid or derivatives
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility38.8 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.2ALOGPS
logP-2.7ChemAxon
logS-0.45ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.68ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.64ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity23.16 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.16 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0udr-0900000000-6d1ec3a7649c0e7a704bSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f79-0900000000-468e3da761e4d86223b1Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0fki-5900000000-0569fb6d8502d22d2b7eSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0f79-0900000000-457c0f4ff1563d09a208Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f79-0900000000-31e0a7f3a4c3fd20ce3cSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udr-0900000000-6d1ec3a7649c0e7a704bSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f79-0900000000-468e3da761e4d86223b1Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fki-5900000000-0569fb6d8502d22d2b7eSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f79-0900000000-457c0f4ff1563d09a208Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000x-9000000000-ebfa02ce7482006f53d1Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01ox-9800000000-f121cbb956b42fc5e20eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-9300000000-eec8c8d22a33d4e8da3bSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-9200000000-f461253126e9b74c7d80Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0940100000-886905799c16b4d25a5fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-a34ee572b02492eaefefSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-ff53f17dcba5f9b8c507Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-a3ccc18b5af8fddfdffaSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0920000000-9c1032a24816a6221477Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-6354cd263d6d293f1d61Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-45a36787ef1f00274735Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-318c8a0e0325b2e98a06Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-2900000000-123846d2dc8e7cf97137Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-6b0caea8d77740b01ec0Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-a5ce3fbe0fd14222c3c8Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-32fdc560d98f6fd6be25Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-5d74861c832bbb4f97fcSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-6900000000-26d55a4c69512ce8ae79Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-9100000000-8fec2539fc653f7bc4d7Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-6efe1a9b61e6af3e4d54Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-519623b6e74aa699cb3bSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-6f298f33310e539b113fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-6f2416e3d3c5aa1f0fffSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-03di-9300000000-85302e310b341400f079Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03dl-6900000000-b26fa2070e91be8f8792Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9200000000-2252807899b1b8ebfc8eSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
  • Sperm
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot Available
Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.842 +/- 1.41 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.240 +/- 0.461 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.614 +/- 0.660 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.65 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease ReferencesNone
    Associated OMIM IDsNone
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB022342
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID96959
    KEGG Compound IDC00519
    BioCyc IDHYPOTAURINE
    BiGG ID35230
    Wikipedia LinkHypotaurine
    METLIN ID281
    PubChem Compound107812
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID16668
    Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
    VMH IDHYPTAUR
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceOwen, Terence C.; Wilbraham, A. C. Convenient preparation and characterization of hypotaurine. Journal of the Chemical Society (1965), (Jan.), 826-7.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
    General References
    1. Dominy J, Eller S, Dawson R Jr: Building biosynthetic schools: reviewing compartmentation of CNS taurine synthesis. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):97-103. [PubMed:14992267 ]
    2. Fontana M, Pecci L, Dupre S, Cavallini D: Antioxidant properties of sulfinates: protective effect of hypotaurine on peroxynitrite-dependent damage. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):111-6. [PubMed:14992269 ]
    3. Pitari G, Dupre S, Spirito A, Antonini G, Amicarelli F: Hypotaurine protection on cell damage by singlet oxygen. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000;483:157-62. [PubMed:11787593 ]
    4. Grafe F, Wohlrab W, Neubert RH, Brandsch M: Functional characterization of sodium- and chloride-dependent taurine transport in human keratinocytes. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2004 Mar;57(2):337-41. [PubMed:15018993 ]
    5. Krieg RC, Uihlein D, Murthum T, Endlicher E, Hausmann F, Messmann H, Knuechel R: Improving the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) for the gastrointestinal tract by esterification--an in vitro study. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2002 Dec;48(8):917-23. [PubMed:12699251 ]
    6. Guerin P, Menezo Y: Hypotaurine and taurine in gamete and embryo environments: de novo synthesis via the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway in oviduct cells. Zygote. 1995 Nov;3(4):333-43. [PubMed:8730898 ]
    7. Masuoka N, Yao K, Kinuta M, Ohta J, Wakimoto M, Ubuka T: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of taurine and hypotaurine using 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride as derivatizing reagent. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1994 Oct 3;660(1):31-5. [PubMed:7858721 ]
    8. Guerin P, Guillaud J, Menezo Y: Hypotaurine in spermatozoa and genital secretions and its production by oviduct epithelial cells in vitro. Hum Reprod. 1995 Apr;10(4):866-72. [PubMed:7650134 ]
    9. Holmes RP, Goodman HO, Shihabi ZK, Jarow JP: The taurine and hypotaurine content of human semen. J Androl. 1992 May-Jun;13(3):289-92. [PubMed:1601750 ]
    10. Mahadevan MM, Trounson AO: Removal of the cumulus oophorus from the human oocyte for in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 1985 Feb;43(2):263-7. [PubMed:3967784 ]
    11. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
    12. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the production of GABA.
    Gene Name:
    GAD2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q05329
    Molecular weight:
    65410.77
    Reactions
    3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the production of GABA.
    Gene Name:
    GAD1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q99259
    Molecular weight:
    66896.065
    Reactions
    3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    CSAD
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9Y600
    Molecular weight:
    55022.79
    Reactions
    3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + CO(2)details
    3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in cysteamine dioxygenase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    ADO
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96SZ5
    Molecular weight:
    29750.535
    Reactions
    Cysteamine + Oxygen → Hypotaurinedetails