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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-09-07 16:45:28 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001123
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01123
Metabolite Identification
Common Name2-Aminobenzoic acid
Description2-Aminobenzoic acid, also known as anthranilic acid or O-aminobenzoate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aminobenzoic acids. These are benzoic acids containing an amine group attached to the benzene moiety. Within humans, 2-aminobenzoic acid participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, 2-aminobenzoic acid and formic acid can be biosynthesized from formylanthranilic acid through its interaction with the enzyme kynurenine formamidase. In addition, 2-aminobenzoic acid and L-alanine can be biosynthesized from L-kynurenine through its interaction with the enzyme kynureninase. It is a substrate of enzyme 2-Aminobenzoic acid hydroxylase in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation pathway (KEGG). In humans, 2-aminobenzoic acid is involved in tryptophan metabolism. Outside of the human body, 2-Aminobenzoic acid has been detected, but not quantified in several different foods, such as mamey sapotes, prairie turnips, rowals, natal plums, and hyacinth beans. This could make 2-aminobenzoic acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. 2-Aminobenzoic acid is a is a tryptophan-derived uremic toxin with multidirectional properties that can affect the hemostatic system. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Chronic exposure of uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma.
Structure
Data?1582752178
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-AminobenzoesaeureChEBI
2-CarboxyanilineChEBI
O-AminobenzoesaeureChEBI
O-Aminobenzoic acidChEBI
O-CarboxyanilineChEBI
Vitamin L1ChEBI
Anthranilic acidKegg
2-AminobenzoateKegg
O-AminobenzoateGenerator
AnthranilateGenerator
Anthranilic acid, cadmium saltHMDB
Anthranilic acid, calcium (2:1) saltHMDB
Anthranilic acid, monolithium saltHMDB
Sodium anthranilateHMDB
Anthranilic acid, dihydrochlorideHMDB
Anthranilic acid, hydrochlorideHMDB
Anthranilic acid, monosodium saltHMDB
1-Amino-2-carboxybenzeneHMDB
2-Amino-benzoateHMDB
2-Amino-benzoic acidHMDB
2-AminophenylacetateHMDB
2-Aminophenylacetic acidHMDB
AnthranateHMDB
Anthranic acidHMDB
Anthranilic acid GRHMDB
CarboxyanilineHMDB
H-2-Abz-OHHMDB
Kyselina anthranilovaHMDB
Kyselina O-aminobenzoovaHMDB
O-Amino-benzoateHMDB
O-Amino-benzoic acidHMDB
O-AnthranilateHMDB
O-Anthranilic acidHMDB
Ortho-amidobenzoateHMDB
Ortho-amidobenzoic acidHMDB
Ortho-aminobenzoateHMDB
Ortho-aminobenzoic acidHMDB
Vitamin LHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H7NO2
Average Molecular Weight137.136
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight137.047678473
IUPAC Name2-aminobenzoic acid
Traditional Name2-aminobenzoic acid
CAS Registry Number118-92-3
SMILES
NC1=CC=CC=C1C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H7NO2/c8-6-4-2-1-3-5(6)7(9)10/h1-4H,8H2,(H,9,10)
InChI KeyRWZYAGGXGHYGMB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aminobenzoic acids. These are benzoic acids containing an amine group attached to the benzene moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAminobenzoic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Aminobenzoic acid
  • Benzoic acid
  • Benzoyl
  • Aniline or substituted anilines
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Source:

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point146.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.5 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.21HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.81 g/LALOGPS
logP0.78ALOGPS
logP1.45ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.89ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)1.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity38.01 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.29 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Collision Cross Sections

NameAdductTypeData SourceValueReference
AllCCS[M-H]-ExperimentalNot Available125.8http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000295
DarkChem[M+H]+PredictedNot Available128.3831661259
DarkChem[M-H]-PredictedNot Available122.0931661259
AllCCS[M+H]+PredictedNot Available129.48732859911
AllCCS[M-H]-PredictedNot Available124.41232859911

Retention Indices

Underivatized

Not Available

Derivatized

DerivativeValueReference
2-Aminobenzoic acid,1TMS,#11497.9917https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
2-Aminobenzoic acid,1TMS,#21607.4216https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
2-Aminobenzoic acid,1TBDMS,#11747.4836https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
2-Aminobenzoic acid,1TBDMS,#21858.5095https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Spectra

GC-MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-014i-1950000000-5595652a2e8f936794372014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-1960000000-889ed538406d5aa57a5d2014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00xr-9650000000-e0611721f0bf7b5bb2f82014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-00r6-2910000000-0daf33fe6231b5e15b0e2014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-014i-3970000000-3351c7d8036c42c4cd412014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kf-9400000000-b65ee27505e8c4bcca282017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0490000000-4165d1d7b8fff53889dd2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-1950000000-5595652a2e8f936794372017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-1960000000-889ed538406d5aa57a5d2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xr-9650000000-e0611721f0bf7b5bb2f82017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00r6-2910000000-0daf33fe6231b5e15b0e2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-3970000000-3351c7d8036c42c4cd412017-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00kr-7900000000-a9c510a71b30a8fcc1b82016-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-7900000000-cb7be965685a5ee30fbd2017-10-06View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-014u-9600000000-5b8e271f29d04a87c89a2014-09-20View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9800000000-24fa3ff739ff064312ab2021-09-18View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-8900000000-5b42adf83e422cffefb62021-09-18View Spectrum

LC-MS/MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-00kf-9400000000-395d42e11895b80f4e9c2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-8c390367e035aea8527a2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-899b596a227cd9a1769d2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-3cc9be013399e30d7eae2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-655ef8fc722e0b1b6d142012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-4d0520217d12a10f92732012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-bab8539624c8af4e64342012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-f51f2db6bf1da2e26d202012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-86d698a8c81a3e7658402012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-6df94712ad580bebfd212012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-a1ce64280c2d7f3b85df2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-454f848122c778e951ad2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-7de473c1ca6bf702b2ac2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-94f19baa1ae36f43be602012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-2900000000-c2bbbe5e00434e635ad22012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-4900000000-f8f84a5536375300afbd2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00r6-9200000000-fccd86d3a0a4bfe2e5d72012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-91ceb340e5cf91473cba2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-80972c552b97ae764bc42012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00di-4900000000-f494672ce9de4818b8c52012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0006-9300000000-9bbb2f00817538e072d52012-08-31View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0079-0900000000-e7e07e78dd5baa5c3f872015-05-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-1900000000-54a3d793d6fbf0220b472015-05-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0umi-9200000000-bd780d6ca957af0064882015-05-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000f-9800000000-93111d593c96a3298a6c2015-05-27View Spectrum

NMR

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 90 MHz, DMSO-d6, experimental)2014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, D2O, experimental)2016-10-22View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 1H] 2D NMR Spectrum (predicted)2012-12-04View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, predicted)2012-12-05View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.001 +/- 0.000046 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.01 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.001 +/- 0.00027 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.42 (0.15-1.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.12 +/- 0.05 uMAdult (>18 years old)Bothuremia details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)BothEnthesitis-related arthritis details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.78 +/- 18.028 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Uremia
  1. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [PubMed:22626821 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB04166
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB000896
KNApSAcK IDC00007382
Chemspider ID222
KEGG Compound IDC00108
BioCyc IDANTHRANILATE
BiGG ID33883
Wikipedia LinkAnthranilic_acid
METLIN ID6018
PubChem Compound227
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30754
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDANTH
MarkerDB IDMDB00000301
References
Synthesis ReferenceWang, Chengyin; Yang, Jisheng; Wang, Honghai. Production of o-aminobenzoic acid from by-product o-nitrobenzoic acid. Huaxue Shijie (1999), 40(5), 274-277.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Di Marco GS, Quinto BM, Juliano M, Carmona AK, Stella RC, Plavnik FL, Casarini DE: Purification and characterization of a neutral endopeptidase-like enzyme from human urine. J Hypertens. 1998 Dec;16(12 Pt 2):1971-8. [PubMed:9886885 ]
  2. Hagag N, Birnbaum ER, Darnall DW: Resonance energy transfer between cysteine-34, tryptophan-214, and tyrosine-411 of human serum albumin. Biochemistry. 1983 May 10;22(10):2420-7. [PubMed:6860638 ]
  3. Little CH, Georgiou GM, Shelton MJ, Simpson F, Cone RE: Clinical and immunological responses in subjects sensitive to solvents. Arch Environ Health. 1999 Jan-Feb;54(1):6-14. [PubMed:10025410 ]
  4. Calandra P: Research on tryptophan metabolites "via kynurenine" in epidermis of man and mouse. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol. 1975;29(1-6):158-60. [PubMed:1244085 ]
  5. Ritchie MR, Morton MS, Thompson AM, Deighton N, Blake A, Cummings JH, Steel CM: Investigation of the reliability of 24 h urine excretion as a biomarker of isoflavone exposure over time and over a wide range of isoflavone intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;58(9):1286-9. [PubMed:15054404 ]
  6. Ortega RM, Andres P, Martinez RM, Lopez-Sobaler AM: Vitamin A status during the third trimester of pregnancy in Spanish women: influence on concentrations of vitamin A in breast milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Sep;66(3):564-8. [PubMed:9280174 ]
  7. Alves MF, Araujo MC, Juliano MA, Oliveira EM, Krieger JE, Casarini DE, Juliano L, Carmona AK: A continuous fluorescent assay for the determination of plasma and tissue angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2005 Jun;38(6):861-8. Epub 2005 Jun 1. [PubMed:15933779 ]
  8. Soma J, Sugawara T, Huang YD, Nakajima J, Kawamura M: Tranilast slows the progression of advanced diabetic nephropathy. Nephron. 2002;92(3):693-8. [PubMed:12372957 ]
  9. Ahmad S: The functional roles of cytochrome P-450 mediated systems: present knowledge and future areas of investigations. Drug Metab Rev. 1979;10(1):1-14. [PubMed:118858 ]
  10. Spivak W, Carey MC: Reverse-phase h.p.l.c. separation, quantification and preparation of bilirubin and its conjugates from native bile. Quantitative analysis of the intact tetrapyrroles based on h.p.l.c. of their ethyl anthranilate azo derivatives. Biochem J. 1985 Feb 1;225(3):787-805. [PubMed:3919713 ]
  11. Igari T, Tsuchizawa M, Shimamura T: Alteration of tryptophan metabolism in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1987 Oct;153(2):79-86. [PubMed:3500530 ]
  12. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [PubMed:22626821 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) and L-3-hydroxykynurenine (L-3OHKyn) into anthranilic acid (AA) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OHAA), respectively. Has a preference for the L-3-hydroxy form. Also has cysteine-conjugate-beta-lyase activity.
Gene Name:
KYNU
Uniprot ID:
Q16719
Molecular weight:
34634.47
Reactions
L-Kynurenine + Water → 2-Aminobenzoic acid + L-Alaninedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-formyl-L-kynurenine to L-kynurenine, the second step in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation. Kynurenine may be further oxidized to nicotinic acid, NAD(H) and NADP(H). Required for elimination of toxic metabolites (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AFMID
Uniprot ID:
Q63HM1
Molecular weight:
33991.5
Reactions
Formylanthranilic acid + Water → Formic acid + 2-Aminobenzoic aciddetails