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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:23:03 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01192
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDiadenosine pentaphosphate
DescriptionDiadenosine pentaphosphate (AP5A) is a diadenosine polyphosphate. Diadenosine polyphosphates (APnAs, n = 3-6) are a family of endogenous vasoactive purine dinucleotides which have been isolated from thrombocytes. APnAs have been demonstrated to be involved in the control of vascular tone as well as the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells and hence, possibly, in atherogenesis. APnAs isolated substances are Ap3A, Ap4A, Ap5A, and Ap6A. APnAs are naturally occurring substances that facilitate tear secretion; they are released from the corneal epithelium, they stimulate tear production and therefore they may be considered as physiological modulators of tear secretion. The APnAs were discovered in the mid-sixties in the course of studies on aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS). APnAs have emerged as intracellular and extracellular signalling molecules implicated in the maintenance and regulation of vital cellular functions and become considered as second messengers. Great variety of physiological and pathological effects in mammalian cells was found to be associated with alterations of APnAs. APnAs are polyphosphated nucleotidic substances which are found in the CNS and are known to be released in a calcium-dependent manner from storage vesicles in brain synaptosomes. AP5A is a specific adenylate kinase inhibitor in the hippocampus, decreasing the rate of decomposition of ADP and the formation of ATP; a pathway that influences the availability of purines in the central nervous system. AP5A in nanomolar concentrations is found to significantly stimulate the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. AP5A is a P2X agonist. The activation of nucleotide ion tropic receptors increases intracellular calcium concentration, resulting in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activation. AP5A is an avid inhibitor of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). EDN is a catalytically proficient member of the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily secreted along with other eosinophil granule proteins during innate host defense responses and various eosinophil-related inflammatory and allergic diseases. The ribonucleolytic activity of EDN is central to its antiviral and neurotoxic activities and possibly to other facets of its biological activity. AP5A have been identified in human platelets and shown to be important modulator of cardiovascular function. AP5A is stored in synaptic vesicles and released upon nerve terminal depolarization. At the extracellular level, AP5A can stimulate presynaptic dinucleotide receptors. Responses to AP5A have been described in isolated synaptic terminals (synaptosomes) from several brain areas in different animal species, including man. Dinucleotide receptors are ligand-operated ion channels that allow the influx of cations into the terminals. These cations reach a threshold for N- and P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, which become activated. The activation of the dinucleotide receptor together with the activation of these calcium channels triggers the release of neurotransmitters. The ability of Ap5A to promote glutamate, GABA or acetylcholine release has been described. (PMID: 11212966 , 12738682 , 11810214 , 9607303 , 8922753 , 10094777 , 16401072 , 16819989 , 17721817 , 17361116 , 14502438 ).
Diadenosine pentaphosphoric acidGenerator
Bis(5'-adenosyl) pentaphosphateHMDB
P1,P5-Bis(5'-adenosyl) pentaphosphateHMDB
Diadenosine pentaphosphateMeSH
Chemical FormulaC20H29N10O22P5
Average Molecular Weight916.3669
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight916.014595222
IUPAC Name{[(3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}[({[({[({[(2R,3S,4R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)(hydroxy)phosphoryl]oxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]phosphinic acid
Traditional Name[(3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy({[({[(2R,3S,4R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl]oxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)phosphinic acid
CAS Registry Number41708-91-2
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as (5'->5')-dinucleotides. These are dinucleotides where the two bases are connected via a (5'->5')-phosphodiester linkage.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct Parent(5'->5')-dinucleotides
Alternative Parents
  • (5'->5')-dinucleotide
  • Purine ribonucleoside polyphosphate
  • Purine nucleotide sugar
  • Purine ribonucleoside monophosphate
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Monosaccharide
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Pyrimidine
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Imidolactam
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Azacycle
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Amine
  • Primary amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Physiological effect

Health effect:


Biological location:


Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility6.92 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.42ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count24ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count11ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area480.5 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count16ChemAxon
Refractivity176.98 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability70.64 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0910110011-1ebff4f5c0c03c91e6eeSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-623ceb91f1640e41633eSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-cdaf365f0907c80b5c9eSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0159-0800002029-e9b528c6c068c211d5e3Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-1900002010-18b81de82c73e4a55904Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-1905100000-bcbb28a6c851b25ab62aSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.24 +/- 0.09 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHemodialysis details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
  1. Jankowski J, Jankowski V, Laufer U, van der Giet M, Henning L, Tepel M, Zidek W, Schluter H: Identification and quantification of diadenosine polyphosphate concentrations in human plasma. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Jul 1;23(7):1231-8. Epub 2003 May 8. [PubMed:12738682 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022479
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound53477724
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Hollah P, Hausberg M, Kosch M, Barenbrock M, Letzel M, Schlatter E, Rahn KH: A novel assay for determination of diadenosine polyphosphates in human platelets: studies in normotensive subjects and in patients with essential hypertension. J Hypertens. 2001 Feb;19(2):237-45. [PubMed:11212966 ]
  2. Jankowski J, Jankowski V, Laufer U, van der Giet M, Henning L, Tepel M, Zidek W, Schluter H: Identification and quantification of diadenosine polyphosphate concentrations in human plasma. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Jul 1;23(7):1231-8. Epub 2003 May 8. [PubMed:12738682 ]
  3. Pintor J, Carracedo G, Alonso MC, Bautista A, Peral A: Presence of diadenosine polyphosphates in human tears. Pflugers Arch. 2002 Jan;443(3):432-6. Epub 2001 Aug 23. [PubMed:11810214 ]
  4. Kisselev LL, Justesen J, Wolfson AD, Frolova LY: Diadenosine oligophosphates (Ap(n)A), a novel class of signalling molecules? FEBS Lett. 1998 May 8;427(2):157-63. [PubMed:9607303 ]
  5. Pintor J, King BF, Miras-Portugal MT, Burnstock G: Selectivity and activity of adenine dinucleotides at recombinant P2X2 and P2Y1 purinoceptors. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Nov;119(5):1006-12. [PubMed:8922753 ]
  6. Jankowski J, Potthoff W, van der Giet M, Tepel M, Zidek W, Schluter H: High-performance liquid chromatographic assay of the diadenosine polyphosphates in human platelets. Anal Biochem. 1999 Apr 10;269(1):72-8. [PubMed:10094777 ]
  7. Baker MD, Holloway DE, Swaminathan GJ, Acharya KR: Crystal structures of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in complex with the inhibitors 5'-ATP, Ap3A, Ap4A, and Ap5A. Biochemistry. 2006 Jan 17;45(2):416-26. [PubMed:16401072 ]
  8. Leon D, Hervas C, Miras-Portugal MT: P2Y1 and P2X7 receptors induce calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation in cerebellar granule neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Jun;23(11):2999-3013. [PubMed:16819989 ]
  9. Sperlagh B, Vizi ES: Extracellular interconversion of nucleotides reveals an ecto-adenylate kinase activity in the rat hippocampus. Neurochem Res. 2007 Nov;32(11):1978-89. Epub 2007 Aug 25. [PubMed:17721817 ]
  10. Jankowski V, Karadogan S, Vanholder R, Nofer JR, Herget-Rosenthal S, van der Giet M, Tolle M, Tran TN, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Paracrine stimulation of vascular smooth muscle proliferation by diadenosine polyphosphates released from proximal tubule epithelial cells. Kidney Int. 2007 May;71(10):994-1000. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17361116 ]
  11. Miras-Portugal MT, Pintor J, Gualix J: Ca2+ signalling in brain synaptosomes activated by dinucleotides. J Membr Biol. 2003 Jul 1;194(1):1-10. [PubMed:14502438 ]