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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2022-03-07 02:49:09 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001311
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0000171
  • HMDB00171
  • HMDB01311
Metabolite Identification
Common NameD-Lactic acid
DescriptionLactic acid is an organic acid. It is a chiral molecule, consisting of two optical isomers, L-lactic acid and D-lactic acid, with the L-isomer being the most common in living organisms. Lactic acid plays a role in several biochemical processes and is produced in the muscles during intense activity. D-Lactic acid is the end product of the enzyme glyoxalase II (or hydroxyacyl-glutathione hydrolase) (EC 3.1.2.6), which converts the intermediate substrate S-lactoyl-glutathione to reduced glutathione and D-lactate (OMIM: 138790 ). Lactic acid is a microbial metabolite found in Aerococcus, Bacillus, Carnobacterium, Corynebacterium, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weissella (PMID:26287368 ; PMID:26360870 ).
Structure
Data?1588265037
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-Lactic acidChEBI
(R)-(-)-Lactic acidChEBI
D-2-Hydroxypropanoic acidChEBI
D-2-Hydroxypropionic acidChEBI
D-MilchsaeureChEBI
LACTIC ACIDChEBI
D-LactateKegg
(-)-LactateGenerator
(R)-(-)-LactateGenerator
D-2-HydroxypropanoateGenerator
D-2-HydroxypropionateGenerator
LACTateGenerator
L-LactateHMDB
(R)-2-HydroxypropanoateHMDB
(R)-2-Hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
(R)-2-HydroxypropionateHMDB
(R)-2-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
(R)-a-HydroxypropionateHMDB
(R)-a-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
(R)-alpha-HydroxypropionateHMDB
(R)-alpha-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
(R)-LactateHMDB
(R)-Lactic acidHMDB
D-(-)-LactateHMDB
D-(-)-Lactic acidHMDB
delta-(-)-LactateHMDB
delta-(-)-Lactic acidHMDB
delta-2-HydroxypropanoateHMDB
delta-2-Hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
delta-2-HydroxypropionateHMDB
delta-2-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
delta-LactateHMDB
delta-Lactic acidHMDB
DLAHMDB
L-(+)-LactateHMDB
PropelHMDB
TisulacHMDB
2 Hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
2 Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
2-Hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
Ammonium lactateHMDB
L Lactic acidHMDB
2-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
Sarcolactic acidHMDB
D Lactic acidHMDB
Lactate, ammoniumHMDB
L-Lactic acidHMDB
D-Lactic acidChEBI
Chemical FormulaC3H6O3
Average Molecular Weight90.0779
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight90.031694058
IUPAC Name(2R)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
Traditional NameD-lactic acid
CAS Registry Number10326-41-7
SMILES
C[C@@H](O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H6O3/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h2,4H,1H3,(H,5,6)/t2-/m1/s1
InChI KeyJVTAAEKCZFNVCJ-UWTATZPHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassHydroxy acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAlpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect

Disposition

Biological location

Source

Process

Naturally occurring process

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point52.8 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility562 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.79ALOGPS
logP-0.47ChemAxon
logS0.79ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity18.84 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.05 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+118.32531661259
DarkChem[M-H]-111.21731661259
AllCCS[M+H]+125.93732859911
AllCCS[M-H]-123.57832859911
DeepCCS[M+H]+117.10130932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-114.330932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-150.75430932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+125.4530932474

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
D-Lactic acidC[C@@H](O)C(O)=O1733.5Standard polar33892256
D-Lactic acidC[C@@H](O)C(O)=O841.3Standard non polar33892256
D-Lactic acidC[C@@H](O)C(O)=O889.6Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
D-Lactic acid,1TMS,isomer #1C[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C(=O)O998.1Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Lactic acid,1TMS,isomer #2C[C@@H](O)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C892.8Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Lactic acid,2TMS,isomer #1C[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C1064.3Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Lactic acid,1TBDMS,isomer #1C[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(=O)O1247.1Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Lactic acid,1TBDMS,isomer #2C[C@@H](O)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1125.3Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Lactic acid,2TBDMS,isomer #1C[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1501.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0900000000-fb59ec16914501aa19ab2018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014j-0900000000-c4d9e12b4b0150eda54b2018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0900000000-fb59ec16914501aa19ab2018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-a3691f383d440fb00e1f2016-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01b9-9620000000-f7faa7db9c1be3d9d9752017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-002b-9000000000-50213d6b39ef9741c4662018-05-25Not AvailableView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-704f8ff33156c82a02d12012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-000m-9000000000-023931446d9bb3330e7f2012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-000l-9000000000-0fb29afb128baea2240b2012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid LC-ESI-IT , negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-d7cd347946e49a57860e2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-aee01e43e8ee93db755d2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000f-9000000000-581a00222505e9e4b4582021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-5bfd9fdf1c0df20544522021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-006x-9000000000-5f417f4a6d08f0ab00ed2016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00dm-9000000000-df7a94bb1a9cf6e78e1a2016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004j-9000000000-dc2a1b965287b9dfee9c2016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-c3686a681cc9bbf039e12016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-ddad20647c2ac56efd222016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-9000000000-b728b45617afcc6b67da2016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-b586cb8f053eb4465b4e2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-400a5f1c0dfcc32ef2bb2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0007-9000000000-ad5eb77c7e0a96f3a40a2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-9000000000-00ba25458eb6c0cc29402021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-9000000000-00ba25458eb6c0cc29402021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Lactic acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-9000000000-00ba25458eb6c0cc29402021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Liver
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Testis
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified11.0 +/- 1.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified7.26 +/- 0.481 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified8 +/- 4.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified508+/-293 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified20.0 +/- 1.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDiabetes details
BloodDetected and Quantified13.1 +/- 1.42 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified600 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleD-Lactic Acidosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified3100-20200 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothD-Lactic Acidosis and Short Bowel Syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified4000-10000 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleD-Lactic Acidosis and Short Bowel Syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified6700 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)MaleD-Lactic Acidosis and Short Bowel Syndrome details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified600 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleD-Lactic Acidosis details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified>2300 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedMetabolic Disorder details
UrineDetected and Quantified466.667-1933.333 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MaleD-Lactic Acidosis details
UrineDetected and Quantified6783.6 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MaleD-Lactic Acidosis and Short Bowel Syndrome details
UrineDetected and Quantified2190-20000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothD-Lactic Acidosis and Short Bowel Syndrome details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Diabetes mellitus type 2
  1. McLellan AC, Phillips SA, Thornalley PJ: Fluorimetric assay of D-lactate. Anal Biochem. 1992 Oct;206(1):12-6. [PubMed:1456422 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Fukushima T, Iizuka H, Yokota A, Suzuki T, Ohno C, Kono Y, Nishikiori M, Seki A, Ichiba H, Watanabe Y, Hongo S, Utsunomiya M, Nakatani M, Sadamoto K, Yoshio T: Quantitative analyses of schizophrenia-associated metabolites in serum: serum D-lactate levels are negatively correlated with gamma-glutamylcysteine in medicated schizophrenia patients. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 8;9(7):e101652. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101652. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:25004141 ]
D-Lactic Acidosis
  1. Duran M, Van Biervliet JP, Kamerling JP, Wadman SK: D-lactic aciduria, an inborn error of metabolism? Clin Chim Acta. 1977 Feb 1;74(3):297-300. [PubMed:832430 ]
D-Lactic Acidosis and Short Bowel Syndrome
  1. Uribarri J, Oh MS, Carroll HJ: D-lactic acidosis. A review of clinical presentation, biochemical features, and pathophysiologic mechanisms. Medicine (Baltimore). 1998 Mar;77(2):73-82. [PubMed:9556700 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB03066
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB030146
KNApSAcK IDC00019549
Chemspider ID55423
KEGG Compound IDC00256
BioCyc IDD-LACTATE
BiGG ID34414
Wikipedia LinkLactic_acid
METLIN ID6150
PubChem Compound61503
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID42111
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDLAC_D
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceHsieh, Chun Lung; Houng, Jer Yiing. Preparation of D-lactic acid from D,L-lactic acid ester using wheat germ or pancreatic lipase. U.S. (1997), 5 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Hasegawa H, Fukushima T, Lee JA, Tsukamoto K, Moriya K, Ono Y, Imai K: Determination of serum D-lactic and L-lactic acids in normal subjects and diabetic patients by column-switching HPLC with pre-column fluorescence derivatization. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2003 Nov;377(5):886-91. Epub 2003 Jul 19. [PubMed:12879188 ]
  2. Smith SM, Eng RH, Buccini F: Use of D-lactic acid measurements in the diagnosis of bacterial infections. J Infect Dis. 1986 Oct;154(4):658-64. [PubMed:3528318 ]
  3. Ellis LC, Groesbeck MD, Farr CH, Tesi RJ: Contractility of seminiferous tubules as related to sperm transport in the male. Arch Androl. 1981 Jun;6(4):283-94. [PubMed:6113819 ]
  4. Pedersen M: Ciliary activity and pollution. Lung. 1990;168 Suppl:368-76. [PubMed:2117139 ]
  5. McLellan AC, Phillips SA, Thornalley PJ: Fluorimetric assay of D-lactate. Anal Biochem. 1992 Oct;206(1):12-6. [PubMed:1456422 ]
  6. Schmid-Schonbein GW: Microlymphatics and lymph flow. Physiol Rev. 1990 Oct;70(4):987-1028. [PubMed:2217560 ]
  7. Solito R, Alessandrini C, Fruschelli M, Pucci AM, Gerli R: An immunological correlation between the anchoring filaments of initial lymph vessels and the neighboring elastic fibers: a unified morphofunctional concept. Lymphology. 1997 Dec;30(4):194-202. [PubMed:9476251 ]
  8. Brandt RB, Siegel SA: Methylglyoxal production in human blood. Ciba Found Symp. 1978;(67):211-23. [PubMed:259500 ]
  9. Zhang YJ, O'Neal WK, Randell SH, Blackburn K, Moyer MB, Boucher RC, Ostrowski LE: Identification of dynein heavy chain 7 as an inner arm component of human cilia that is synthesized but not assembled in a case of primary ciliary dyskinesia. J Biol Chem. 2002 May 17;277(20):17906-15. Epub 2002 Mar 4. [PubMed:11877439 ]
  10. Tanyel FC, Ulusu NN, Tezcan EF, Buyukpamukcu N: Total calcium content of sacs associated with inguinal hernia, hydrocele or undescended testis reflects differences dictated by programmed cell death. Urol Int. 2003;70(3):211-5. [PubMed:12660459 ]
  11. Kaneko T, Bando Y, Kurihara H, Satomi K, Nonoyama K, Matsuura N: Fecal microflora in a patient with short-bowel syndrome and identification of dominant lactobacilli. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Dec;35(12):3181-5. [PubMed:9399516 ]
  12. Hoijer MA, Melief MJ, van Helden-Meeuwsen CG, Eulderink F, Hazenberg MP: Detection of muramic acid in a carbohydrate fraction of human spleen. Infect Immun. 1995 May;63(5):1652-7. [PubMed:7729869 ]
  13. Juturu V, Wu JC: Microbial production of lactic acid: the latest development. Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2016 Dec;36(6):967-977. doi: 10.3109/07388551.2015.1066305. Epub 2015 Aug 11. [PubMed:26287368 ]
  14. Becker J, Lange A, Fabarius J, Wittmann C: Top value platform chemicals: bio-based production of organic acids. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2015 Dec;36:168-75. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2015.08.022. Epub 2015 Sep 8. [PubMed:26360870 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Thiolesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of S-D-lactoyl-glutathione to form glutathione and D-lactic acid.
Gene Name:
HAGH
Uniprot ID:
Q16775
Molecular weight:
28859.855
Reactions
S-Lactoylglutathione + Water → Glutathione + D-Lactic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHD
Uniprot ID:
Q86WU2
Molecular weight:
54870.18
Reactions
D-Lactic acid + ferricytochrome c → Pyruvic acid + ferrocytochrome c + Hydrogen Iondetails
D-Lactic acid + Ferricytochrome c → Pyruvic acid + Ferrocytochrome c + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolase acting on ester bonds (Potential).
Gene Name:
HAGHL
Uniprot ID:
Q6PII5
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
S-Lactoylglutathione + Water → Glutathione + D-Lactic aciddetails

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
SLC16A3
Uniprot ID:
O15427
Molecular weight:
49468.9
References
  1. Manning Fox JE, Meredith D, Halestrap AP: Characterisation of human monocarboxylate transporter 4 substantiates its role in lactic acid efflux from skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2000 Dec 1;529 Pt 2:285-93. [PubMed:11101640 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular weight:
53957.7
References
  1. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. [PubMed:9786900 ]
  2. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [PubMed:10579682 ]
  3. Takanaga H, Tamai I, Inaba S, Sai Y, Higashida H, Yamamoto H, Tsuji A: cDNA cloning and functional characterization of rat intestinal monocarboxylate transporter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Dec 5;217(1):370-7. [PubMed:8526936 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate. MCT2 is a high affinity pyruvate transporter
Gene Name:
SLC16A7
Uniprot ID:
O60669
Molecular weight:
52185.7
References
  1. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. [PubMed:9786900 ]