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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-09-07 16:45:30 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001505
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01505
Metabolite Identification
Common NameBenzene
DescriptionBenzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms joined in a planar ring with one hydrogen atom attached to each. Because it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon. Benzene, also known as benzol or [6]annulene, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzene and substituted derivatives. These are aromatic compounds containing one monocyclic ring system consisting of benzene. Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and is one of the elementary petrochemicals. Due to the cyclic continuous pi bonds between the carbon atoms, benzene is classed as an aromatic hydrocarbon. It is sometimes abbreviated PhH. Benzene is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell, and is partially responsible for the aroma around petrol (gasoline) stations. It is used primarily as a precursor to the manufacture of chemicals with more complex structure, such as ethylbenzene and cumene, of which billions of kilograms are produced annually. Although a major industrial chemical, benzene finds limited use in consumer items because of its toxicity. Benzene is formally rated as a carcinogen (by IARC 1) and is also a potentially toxic compound. Benzene has been found to be associated with several diseases such as autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified.
Structure
Data?1582752206
Synonyms
ValueSource
[6]AnnuleneChEBI
BenzenChEBI
BenzineChEBI
BenzolChEBI
BenzoleChEBI
Bicarburet OF hydrogenChEBI
Coal naphthaChEBI
CyclohexatrieneChEBI
Mineral naphthaChEBI
PheneChEBI
Phenyl hydrideChEBI
PyrobenzolChEBI
PyrobenzoleChEBI
(6)AnnuleneHMDB
AnnuleneHMDB
Aromatic alkaneHMDB
BenzeenHMDB
BenzinHMDB
BenzinumHMDB
Benzol 90HMDB
BenzoleneHMDB
BenzoloHMDB
BenzolumHMDB
BNZHMDB
Carbon oilHMDB
FenzenHMDB
Motor benzolHMDB
PolystreamHMDB
RNGHMDB
{[6]annulene}HMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H6
Average Molecular Weight78.1118
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight78.046950192
IUPAC Namebenzene
Traditional Namebenzene
CAS Registry Number71-43-2
SMILES
C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H6/c1-2-4-6-5-3-1/h1-6H
InChI KeyUHOVQNZJYSORNB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzene and substituted derivatives. These are aromatic compounds containing one monocyclic ring system consisting of benzene.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBenzene and substituted derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aromatic hydrocarbon
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Source:

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point5.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.79 mg/mLNot Available
LogP2.13HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.07 g/LALOGPS
logP2.03ALOGPS
logP1.97ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity26.06 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.89 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra

GC-MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9000000000-70967112fec69784847c2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9000000000-92ccc664b07cb6c56de92017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fb9-9000000000-2aae37aac9f2a02d5e8b2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9100000000-11f8463e7c6286637b1b2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9000000000-70967112fec69784847c2018-05-18View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9000000000-92ccc664b07cb6c56de92018-05-18View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fb9-9000000000-2aae37aac9f2a02d5e8b2018-05-18View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9100000000-11f8463e7c6286637b1b2018-05-18View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-c5901591488019f3ac5d2017-09-01View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-004i-9000000000-08f396d6cb4660e57caa2014-09-20View Spectrum

LC-MS/MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-70967112fec69784847c2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-D-3000) , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-92ccc664b07cb6c56de92012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HP 5970) , Positivesplash10-0fb9-9000000000-2aae37aac9f2a02d5e8b2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CI-B (FINNIGAN-MAT 4500) , Positivesplash10-004i-9100000000-11f8463e7c6286637b1b2012-08-31View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-45ac36cbb443a00d6a172017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-9cad19d98e6420c7b6a32017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-2dace4807cb04a7942de2017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-b9df9bb9660e1fc49a7f2017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-b9df9bb9660e1fc49a7f2017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-b4ff542394722302be432017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-b961755486c61c33c1c72021-09-07View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0fb9-9000000000-9a8a4f7775597a0e167e2021-09-07View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-fd85b2b474c37c371a5a2021-09-07View Spectrum

NMR

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)2014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 25.16 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)2014-09-23View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, predicted)2012-12-05View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Breath
  • Feces
  • Saliva
Tissue Locations
  • Bone Marrow
  • Epidermis
  • Leukocyte
  • Liver
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000384 (0.000320-0.000448) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • National Health a...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000307 (0.000256-0.000384) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • National Health a...
details
BreathDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) non progressor details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) progressor details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)BothAutism details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)BothPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)BothCeliac disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Autism
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Celiac disease
  1. Francavilla R, Ercolini D, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Filippis F, De Pasquale I, Di Cagno R, Di Toma M, Gozzi G, Serrazanetti DI, De Angelis M, Gobbetti M: Salivary microbiota and metabolome associated with celiac disease. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014 Jun;80(11):3416-25. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00362-14. Epub 2014 Mar 21. [PubMed:24657864 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB012843
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID236
KEGG Compound IDC01407
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkBenzene
METLIN ID6285
PubChem Compound241
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16716
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceCopisarow, Maurice; Long, Cyril N H. The Friedel-Crafts' reaction. II. Migration of halogen atoms in the benzene nucleus. Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions (1921), 119 442-7.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Wiwanitkit V, Soogarun S, Suwansaksri J: Urine phenol and myeloperoxidase index: an observation in benzene exposed subjects. Leuk Lymphoma. 2004 Aug;45(8):1643-5. [PubMed:15370219 ]
  2. Wang S, Chen H, Wang X: [Studies on relationship between exposure to low concentration of mixed benzene and lower quality of semen and very early fetal loss]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2000 Sep;34(5):271-3. [PubMed:11372393 ]
  3. Zhang L, Wang Y, Shang N, Smith MT: Benzene metabolites induce the loss and long arm deletion of chromosomes 5 and 7 in human lymphocytes. Leuk Res. 1998 Feb;22(2):105-13. [PubMed:9593466 ]
  4. Fabiani R, De Bartolomeo A, Morozzi G: Involvement of oxygen free radicals in the serum-mediated increase of benzoquinone genotoxicity. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2005 Oct;46(3):156-63. [PubMed:15920754 ]
  5. Turteltaub KW, Mani C: Benzene metabolism in rodents at doses relevant to human exposure from urban air. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2003 Feb;(113):1-26; discussion 27-35. [PubMed:12675491 ]
  6. Irons RD, Stillman WS: Impact of benzene metabolites on differentiation of bone marrow progenitor cells. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Dec;104 Suppl 6:1247-50. [PubMed:9118900 ]
  7. Rothman N, Li GL, Dosemeci M, Bechtold WE, Marti GE, Wang YZ, Linet M, Xi LQ, Lu W, Smith MT, Titenko-Holland N, Zhang LP, Blot W, Yin SN, Hayes RB: Hematotoxicity among Chinese workers heavily exposed to benzene. Am J Ind Med. 1996 Mar;29(3):236-46. [PubMed:8833776 ]
  8. Barbera N, Bulla G, Romano G: A fatal case of benzene poisoning. J Forensic Sci. 1998 Nov;43(6):1250-1. [PubMed:9846407 ]
  9. Rolle-Kampczyk UE, Rehwagen M, Franck U, Weiss H, Krumbiegel P, Herbarth O: Bio-effect monitoring using a [(15)N]methacetin test as diagnostic tool to monitor remediation effects in an industrially polluted region. Toxicol Lett. 2006 Apr 10;162(2-3):234-8. Epub 2005 Oct 19. [PubMed:16242870 ]
  10. Vermeulen R, Lan Q, Zhang L, Gunn L, McCarthy D, Woodbury RL, McGuire M, Podust VN, Li G, Chatterjee N, Mu R, Yin S, Rothman N, Smith MT: Decreased levels of CXC-chemokines in serum of benzene-exposed workers identified by array-based proteomics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 22;102(47):17041-6. Epub 2005 Nov 14. [PubMed:16286641 ]
  11. Mathews JM, De Costa KS: Absorption, metabolism, and disposition of 1,3-diphenyl-1-triazene in rats and mice after oral, i.v., and dermal administration. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Dec;27(12):1499-504. [PubMed:10570033 ]
  12. Gut I, Nedelcheva V, Soucek P, Stopka P, Tichavska B: Cytochromes P450 in benzene metabolism and involvement of their metabolites and reactive oxygen species in toxicity. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Dec;104 Suppl 6:1211-8. [PubMed:9118895 ]
  13. Irons RD, Lv L, Gross SA, Ye X, Bao L, Wang XQ, Ryder J, Armstrong TW, Zhou Y, Miao L, Le AT, Kerzic PJ, Ni W, Fu H: Chronic exposure to benzene results in a unique form of dysplasia. Leuk Res. 2005 Dec;29(12):1371-80. Epub 2005 Sep 23. [PubMed:16183116 ]
  14. Xiao G, Pan C, Cai Y, Lin H, Fu Z: Effect of benzene, toluene, xylene on the semen quality and the function of accessory gonad of exposed workers. Ind Health. 2001 Apr;39(2):206-10. [PubMed:11341554 ]
  15. Dees C, Askari M, Henley D: Carcinogenic potential of benzene and toluene when evaluated using cyclin-dependent kinase activation and p53-DNA binding. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Dec;104 Suppl 6:1289-92. [PubMed:9118908 ]
  16. Ward E, Hornung R, Morris J, Rinsky R, Wild D, Halperin W, Guthrie W: Risk of low red or white blood cell count related to estimated benzene exposure in a rubberworker cohort (1940-1975) Am J Ind Med. 1996 Mar;29(3):247-57. [PubMed:8833777 ]
  17. Seaton MJ, Schlosser P, Medinsky MA: In vitro conjugation of benzene metabolites by human liver: potential influence of interindividual variability on benzene toxicity. Carcinogenesis. 1995 Jul;16(7):1519-27. [PubMed:7614685 ]
  18. Brugnone F, Perbellini L, Romeo L, Cerpelloni M, Bianchin M, Tonello A: Benzene in blood as a biomarker of low level occupational exposure. Sci Total Environ. 1999 Sep 1;235(1-3):247-52. [PubMed:10535123 ]
  19. Ress NB: NTP Technical Report on the metabolism, toxicity and predicted carcinogenicity of diazoaminobenzene (CAS No. 136-35-6). Toxic Rep Ser. 2002 Sep;(73):1-23, A1-C6. [PubMed:12370695 ]
  20. Surralles J, Autio K, Nylund L, Jarventaus H, Norppa H, Veidebaum T, Sorsa M, Peltonen K: Molecular cytogenetic analysis of buccal cells and lymphocytes from benzene-exposed workers. Carcinogenesis. 1997 Apr;18(4):817-23. [PubMed:9111220 ]